global- chapter 3: ancient india and china
Terms in this set (60)
what is the geography of india?
huge peninsula that extending into the Indian Ocean (Asia, more specifically South Asia); subcontinent and have natural barriers
the indian subcontinent is divided into three major zones:
gangetic plain, deccan plateau, and the coastal plains on either side of deccan
what are the two major rivers in the Indian subcontinent?
indus and ganges
raised area of level land, that juts into the Indian Ocean
seasonal winds that regularly blow from a certain direction for part of the year
by 2500 b.c., people build cities of brick laid out on a __________.
engineers create plumbing and __________ systems.
earliest South Asian civilization in Indus River valley; it flourished for about 700 years
harappa and mohenjo daro
considered possible twin capitals of the civilization that ruled the area one after the other
what religion were the people of the Indus River Valley?
who did they worship?
a mother goddess who was the source of creation; buffalo and bull
special regard for
what were the 3 causes of the Indus Civilization decline?
earthquakes, floods, and soil depletion
what were some main details about the Aryans?
male dominated nomadic tribes; herded cattle; warriors; had no written language
the blending of two or more cultures ex: the Aryans combined the cultural traditions of the nomads with those of earlier Indian people
a collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions, and other religious teachings; aryan priests memorized and recited the Vedas
was often the most skilled war leader, had been elected to his position by an assembly of warriors
what is the highest social class?
what is the second social class?
what is the third social class?
vaisyas (included herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants)
what is the fourth social class?
sudras (included farmworkers, servants, and other laborers)
what is the lowest social class?
untouchables (dalits); were considered outside of the caste system
the chief Aryan deity, who was the god of war
a single spiritual power that existed beyond the many gods of the Vedas; supreme god and universal world soul
people who seek direct communication with divine forces
India's greatest epic
a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over time; no founder; create upanishads
individual soul; goal in life is to unite atman with brahman
hindus union with brahman; individuals must free themselves from selfish desires that separate them from brahman; hindus choose own path to moksha
the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form
every action is punished or rewarded which determines course of new life; "what goes around comes around"
one's moral duty in life; varies according to caste, gender etc.
new religion 500s b.c.; will not harm any creature; practice religious tolerance
nonviolence; all people and things are aspects of brahman and therefore deserve to be respected
social groups into which people are born and which rarely be changed
a reformer and his teachings spread across Asia; "buddha"; spread buddhism; relieved human suffering
four noble truths
all life is full of suffering, pain and sorrow; the cause of suffering is non virtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire; the only cure for suffering is to overcome non virtue; the way to overcome nonvirtue; the way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
right understanding, right emotion, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness, and right meditation
what are some similarities between hinduism and buddhism?
nonviolent religions; belief in reincarnation, nirvana (moksha), karma and dharma; both originated in india
what are some differences between hinduism and buddhism?
rejects the many gods of hinduism; rejects caste system; eightfold path to nirvana
buddhists union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
what are two sects of buddhism?
therada buddhism and the mahayana
closely followed the buddha's original teachings; view buddha as a teacher; souuth and southeast asia
made buddhism easier for ordinary people to follow; view buddha as a savior; china, korea, and japan
a young adventurer forged the first Indian empire; found the mauryan empire; conquered northern India; maintained order through a well-organized bureaucracy
a greek ambassador who described the great maurya capital at pataliputra
a brutal secret police force reported on corruption, crime, and dissent
the most honored maurya emperor; he fought a long war to conquer the deccan region; converted to buddhism, rejected violence, and resolved to rule by moral example
people sent on a religious mission, to spread buddhism across india and to sri lanka
period of great cultural achievement
system of numbers based on ten digits
when parents, children, and their offspring shared a common dwelling; indian families were patriarchal
payment to the bridegroom, and financed the costly wedding festivities
women were thought to have this, a creative energy that men lacked
buddhists did this to pray to the gods and worship them
seeked enlightenment; he was also called "the enlightened one"