US Foreign Relations Midterm


Terms in this set (...)

Shays Rebellion
§ Prices for American commodities fall overseas in the early days, money super scarce, farmers have no way to pay their debts (this is arguably the first depression the US faced)
□ Shay's Rebellion as a result
® Brief rebellion but gets the whole countries attention
Suggests that the problems facing US transcend economics, its social as well and people are kinda tense towards the nation and federal authority
Model Treaty
- Document drafted by John Adams and other Continental Congress members in 1776
- Designed as a template for agreements the US might enter in to with other nations, a guide for American diplomats
- Favored strictly commercial connections with foreign nations (namely France), not political or military connections
- Adams is asserting the idea that America should be a nation that stands on principle
- *Though it is not embraced as an official document of continental congress, it is significant because it reflects American hesitance towards embroilment with foreign powers both during the revolutionary period and the years to follow.
First Party System
Quasi War
-With the the break out of the French revolution and subsequent fighting between Britain and France, tensions between the US and France rise
-When the US negotiates Jay's Treaty with Britain, France is outraged at the US for betraying both republicanism and their previous treaty of alliance
- France begins seizing US ships and demanding bribes from the US
- President Adams attempt to resolve their differences diplomatically with the XYZ affair fails, delegates return home
- Two years of naval engagements between the two nations ensues, with the US capturing many French ships
- Agreement is reached after two years, but like agreement with Britain it doesn't address the important issue of US neutrality - but the nation survives another day
- This event is significant because it highlights one of the many dangerous occurrences that posed an existential threat to extremely the young US nation and demonstrates that despite US diplomatic caution during this era, war was avoided, the US was free from their treaty with France, and the nation survived another day
Macon's Bill No. 2
- During the Napoleonic wars, American ships were frequently seized by the belligerents because of their stance of neutrality
- In an attempt to stop the seizing of American ships by Britain and France and the impressment of American sailors in the the Royal Navy, Jefferson passes the Embargo Act and Non Intercourse Act which both hurt the US economically and were widely regarded as failure
- Jefferson attempts to remedy this two failures with Macon's bill, which reopened trade with Britain and France and provided that if either country agreed to respect American shipping, the US would cut off trade with the other
- Exploited by Napoleon and proves significant because it adds fuel to the already tense fire with Britain over trade issues which will lead to the breakout of the war of 1812
Creole Mutiny
- Slave rebellion that took place in 1841
- Incident in which slaves aboard a US ship mutinied, successfully take the ship and sale to Nassau where they are set free by British
-Americans outraged by this slave rebellion and British freeing of the slaves
- Particularly significant in the changing relations between the US and Britain during this ear, despite US outrage at British actions and a period of high tensions between the nations, this doesn't provoke either side to action, which reflects the growing consensus between the two nations and general willingness to see eye to eye in the years following the war of 1812
John Winthrop
- Governor of MA
- Delivers city upon a hill sermon in 1630
- Expresses early ideals of choosenness and American exceptionalism
- Winthrop and his sermon were significant because they reflected an ideal that was prevalent to American foreign policy in the early days of its existence as a nation - that the US should lead by example but avoid entanglements with outside nations who were corrupt and dangerous
Comte to Vergennes
- French diplomat that was sent to meet with American revolutionaries
- advocated that France provide secret financial assistance to the insurgent American colonists as early as 1775
-hoped to strike a blow at Great Britain that would avenge France's defeat in the Seven Years' War
- In 1778 he secures the alliance with the colonists, declared war on Great Britain
- Played a significant role in France backing the colonists independence efforts and really shows how diplomatic affairs, have a major impact on Americans believing they can achieve independence with the backing of France
- When fighting breaks out between Britain and France during the Napoleonic wars, US declares neutrality, meaning they reserve the right to to trade freely as they see fit (including with belligerents) with exception of military equipment
- Britain doesn't want the US trading with their enemy (France) so we see an increase in British seizure of US ships and forcing sailors in to the Royal Navy (impressment)
- Impressment is significant because it is tangible evidence of British refusal to acknowledge US neutrality, which outrages the US and will become a major cause of the war of 1812
Embargo Act of 1807
- As a response to British seizure of US ships and impressment of sailors, Jefferson retaliates with this piece of legislation
-closed U.S. ports and made exports illegal
-Generally hurt US more than either of the enemies it was aimed at
-One of a series of legislation passed by US to thwart British lack of regard for their neutrality - unsuccessful and generally contribute stop war of 1812
Hartford Convention
John Forsyth
- key diplomat in dealing with the British in years leading up to the war of 1812
.- After several instances of British ships freeing American slave in British ports, Forsyth negotiated an agreement with British Representative Palmerston.
- Forsyth wanted British to recognize slaves as American property
- The British agreed to pay for the losses from the first two ships in the string of those which they freed slaves from but also stated that they would not recognize American slave/property law in the future. The concession on the part of the British is indicative of thp-e rapprochement occurring between US and Britain and signifies the desire to not too greatly disrupt the growing good relations
Proclamation of 1763
- British announce following the peace of the French and Indian War
- Order there to be no settlement past the App. Mtns.
-Purpose was to discourage new fighting between Americans and French and Indians settlements in that area
-Americans want that land for economic means and expansion ideology.
Significant because it increased tensions US colonies felt towards Britain and would be a contributing factor leading to the declaration
Battle of Saratoga
- Battle that took place during the American revolution in 1777
- the American victory convinced the French government to formally recognize the colonist's cause and enter the war as their ally
XYZ Affair
- French infuriated by Jay's Treaty, believing it violated earlier treaties between the United States and France
-went on to seize a substantial number of American merchant ships and demand bribes
- Angers US, Adams sends a delegation to France to try to work out their differences and defend once again their neutrality
- Not welcomed, essentially a failed diplomatic relation that will lead to the Quasi War which is a prime example of instability of the nation and existential threats of the era
Tripolitan War
§ North African city states thrive in part by raiding European shipments (prior to American Revolution, American ships protected by British flag but not anymore after independence)
§ Washington and Adams chose to follow British lead and just pay tributes to stop the seizing of American ships
§ Thomas Jefferson changes course on dealing with this threat
□ Considered payment to these pirates as extortian and believed Washington and Adam had caved too easily
□ Jefferson stops paying tributes
® This leads to confrontations, the biggest being from Tripoli
◊ Tripolitan War ---> Triploi declares war on US when they stop paying tributes
} 1801-1805
◊ Jefferson sends 4 military ships (without authorization from Congress its important to note)
◊ Jefferson also at one point tries to overthrow ruler (first example of US attempting to overthrows a regime? Possible)
◊ War ends when Tripoli agrees to commercial treaty without any tributes
Ironic bc the cost of the war ends up costing far more than just paying the tributes (example of how standing on principle can be expensive, highlights the hard choices Washington/Adams/etc had to deal with)
George Canning
Transcontinental Treaty