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John Cabot

Founded Nova Scotia

Giovanni Verrazano

Explored Atlantic shore of United States

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532.

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty

Mary Tudor

She was the devout Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Henry VIII. She served as queen after the brief reign of Edward VI. She turned England back to Catholicism, by persecuting and executing hundreds of English Protestants. (p.473)

Queen Elizabeth

daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded the Catholic Mary I and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated; her reign was marked by prosperity and literary genius (1533-1603)

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer/pirate who circumnavigated the globe from 1577 to 1580 and was sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold

Sea Dogs

English sea captains authorized to raid Spanish ships and towns

Sir Walter Raleigh

Founded Roanoke

Humphrey Gilbert

English navigator who in 1583 established in Newfoundland the first English colony in North America (1539-1583)


Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.

John White

Roanoke's colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools--when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished--the only clue he found of Roanoke or the "Lost colony" was the native american tribes name "CROATAN"


Believed that with investment in America, England would (1) profit, (2) obtain prestige, and (3) bring glory to God

Christopher Newport

Captain of the ship that brought the first settlers to Jamestown.


The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.

John Smith

Governor of Jamestown that forced the settlers to work which is credited with saving the colony

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Headright System

Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.


Europeans name for chief of the Powhatans; Pocahantas' father


brother of Chief Powhatan who became new Chief Powhatan in 1618. He wanted the English to leave Virginia so in 1622 his forces killed about 350 colonists

Rene' Goulaine de Ladonniere

Took 300 French colonists to St. James River in Florida

Samuel de Champlain

Founded Quebec on St. Lawrence River


Spanish gentleman who founded the colony of St. Augustine

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