66 terms

AP World: Ways of the World: Chapter 6 {FULL}

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Evo Morales
Bolivian president who was inaugurated for his second term in office.
Tiwanaku
Center of an impressive empire that had flourished in the Andean highlands between 400 and 1000 C.E.
Pachamama and Tata Inti
Andean earth goddess and inca sun god.
Agricultural Revolution
On three supercontinents-- Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas, the momentous turn of the __________ took place independently and in several distinct areas of each landmass.
250 million
total world population at the beginning of the Common Era.
85
Eurasia was then home to more than ______% of the world's people
10
Africa had about ______% of the world's people.
5
Americas had about ______% of the world's people
1
Oceania had less than _____% of the world's people
Maya
In the Americas, writing was limited to the Mesoamerican region and was most highly developed among the __________.
Ethiopia
The Christian faith found an even more permanent foothold in the lands now known as ________. (Borgeson grew up here)
camel
the arrival of the domesticated _________ probably from Arabia, generated a pastoral way of life among some of the Berber peoples of the western Sahara during the first three centuries CE.
Environmental variations and enormous size.
What caused the variation among the people of Africa
bisected by the equator, it was the most tropical of the world's three supercontinents.
Africa's one distinctive environmental feature.
Kush
Nubian kingdom that conquered Egypt and ruled it for a century.
Meroë
the kingdom of ________ was governed by an all-powerful and sacred monarch, a position held on at least ten occasions by women, governing alone as co-rulers with a male monarch.
smelting of iron and manufacture of iron tools and weapons
especially prominent industries in Meroe.
Statue of the Roman emperor Augustus
The discovery in Meroe of a _________________, probably seized during a raid on Roman Egypt, testifies to contact with the Mediterranean world.
Apedemek
A local lion god ________, grew more prominent than Egyptian deities such as Isis and Osiris.
Piye
primary cause of Kush conquering Egypt and ruling it for a century. A Kushite ruler who recorded his great victory in a magnificent inscription that provides some hints about his own personality and outlook on the world.
Atum
Egyptian creator-god closely connected to kingship.
Thebes
After celebrating the new year in 730 BCE, this is where Piye stopped by, a southern Egyptian city already controlled by Kushite forces.
Opet Festival
Celebration that Piye took part in honoring Amum, his wife Mut (Egypt's mother goddess), and their offspring Khonsu, associated with the moon.
Prince Namlot
ruler of Hermopolis, surrendered when Piye's army laid siege to his city.
Memphis
north Egyptian city, ruled by chieftain Tefnakht.
deforestation caused by the need for wood to make charcoal for smelting iron.
Why the kingdom of Meroe declined
Axum
African Christian kingdom that lay in the Horn of Africa, in what is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. Used plow-based agriculture.
Huge stone obelisks
Most famous structures in Axum were ________, which most likely marked royal graves.
Ge'ez
language used in Axum court, towns, and commerce.
King Ezana
Monarch who adopted the new religion of Christianity in Axum about the same time as Constantine did in the Roman Empire.
60
Christianity represents ________% of Ethiopia's population today.
Islam
what altered the trade routes and diminished the revenue available to the Axumite state.
Jenne-jeno
Most fully studied of the urban clusters that grew up along the middle NIger was the city of ____________, which at its high point probably housed more than 40,000 people.
apparent absence of corresponding state structure.
Among the most distinctive features of the Niger Valley civilization was the _______________.
cities without citadels
According to a leading historian of Niger Valley, the cities were "___________", complex urban centers that apparently operated without the coercive authority of a state, for archeologists have found in their remains few signs of despotic power, widespread warfare, or deep social inequalities.
iron smithing
Earliest and most prestigious of the specialized occupations in the other cities of Niger River Valley.
rugged mountainous terrain
physical feature in the Americas that distinguished these centers of civilization from those in the Afro-Eurasian world was their rugged mountainous region.
Llama and Alpaca
In the ANdes, domestication of these two animals offered food, fiber, and transport for the civilizations of that region and in a few places provided for a time the basis for largely pastoral communities.
El Mirador
In northern Guatemala, the archeological site of _________ was home to tens of thousands of people, a pyramid/temple said by some to be the largest in the world.
Popul Vuh
Mayan creation story
state shamans
Powerful Mayan rulers, able to mediate between humankind and the supernatural.
Olmec
exchanged a number of luxury goods used to display social status and for ritual purposes.
Development of a mathematical system that include the concept of zero and place notation and was capable of complex calculations
Most well-known achievement by the Mayans.
Teotihuacan
giant city thriving further north of the Mayan civilization in the valley of Mexico.
Pyramid of the Sun
one of the two giant pyramids in Teotihuacan, had been constructed over an ancient tunnel leading to a cave and may well have been regarded as the site of creation itself, the birthplace of the sun and the moon.
Temple of the Feathered serpent
archeologists have found the remains of 200 people, their heads and arms tied behind them; they were the apparently unwilling sacrificial victims meant to accompany the high-ranking persons buried there into the afterlife.
butterflies
in Teotihuacan, this was thought to represent the souls of the dead.
Incas
most well-known of the civilizations to take shape in this Andes environment was that of the Incas, which encompassed practically the entire region, some 2,500 miles in length.
Chavin de Huantar
became the focus of a religious movement that soon swept through both coastal and highland Peru, aided by its strategic location on trade routes to both the coastal region to the west and the Amazon to the east.
Moche
one of the civilizations that replaced the pan-Andes Chavin cult. Economy was rooted in a complex irrigation system.
Wari and Tiwanaku
Andean interior empires, provided a measure of political integration and cultural commonality for the entire Andean region.
Lord of Sipan
name dubbed for the remains of a prominent man of Moche society who died in what is now Peru.
Lady of Cao
name dubbed for the finding of a burial site containing the intact body of a young woman who had died in childbirth around 450 C.E.
Bantu
Languages that agricultural peoples spoke in south Africa.
Larger communities, Immunity to animal-borne diseases, and access to iron
advantages of Bantu-speakers
Anasazi
The ________ of the southwestern United States, now called the Ancestral Pueblo, and the mound-building cultures of the eastern woodlands provide two examples of peoples who made their own histories.
kivas
a much larger pit structures used for ceremonial purposes in the southwestern region of North America, which symbolized the belief that humankind emerged into this world from another world below.
pueblos
processes of change such as growing dependence on agriculture and increasing population gave more intensive patterns of exchange, which gave rise to larger settlements and adjacent aboveground structures known as pueblos.
Chaco Phenomenon
encompassed 25,000 square miles and linked some seventy outlying settlements to the main centers.
Pueblo Bonito
largest of Chaco towns, or "great houses", ________, stood five stories high and contained more than 600 rooms and many kivas.
Hopewell
Earliest of the mound builders, most elaborate and widespread. Found in archeological site in Ohio
Cahokia
dominant center of mound-building corn based agriculture near present-day St.Louis, Missouri, which flourished from 900 to 1250 CE.
Great Suns
Paramount chiefs, known as _____________, dressed in knee-length fur coats and lived luxuriously in deerskin-covered homes.
stinkards
An elite class of "principal men" or honored peoples" clearly occupied a different status from commoners, sometimes referred to as "_________".
Moa
In New Zealand, human hunting largely eliminated the huge flightless _______ bird within a century.
Rapa Nui
__________(Easter Island) in easternmost Polynesia had come almost to the point of ecological collapse by the time Europeans arrived in the eighteenth century.