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Weather and Climate 2 Test 1 questions
Terms in this set (54)
1. What is the definition of weather? Give one example of how it can influence daily life.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere at some place and time described with quantitative variable Temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction. What to wear, what we are going to do. Crops that are grown.
2. List 5 measurements that describe the state of the atmosphere at any given time
Min/Max Temp, Humidity, Precipitation Amount and type, Air Pressure, Wind direction and speed, Sky Cover.
3. What is the definition of climate? Give an example of how people mistake weather events for global warming changes
Climate is the weather conditions at some locality averaged over a specified time period. A specific day or season showing unusual weather is not climate change.
What are the two necessary ingredients for weather? Is there weather on the Moon? Explain
The two necessary ingredients for weather are 1. An atmosphere and 2. And energy source (sun). There is no weather on the moon because it has no atmosphere.
5. What are two reasons why there is unequal heating at different latitudes on the Earth's surface? What is its effect at the Earth's surface?
There is uneven heating of the earth due to its tilt resulting in Beam Spreading and the spherical nature of the earth. Uneven heating creates a temperature gradient.
6. Draw a sketch of the demonstration of beam spreading. Explain the result.
T1 is hotter than T2 because of beam spreading, the intensity of the light is less than that of direct light.
7. Explain why the polar regions of the earth are not getting colder and the Tropical regions are not getting warmer.
The polar regions are not getting colder and the tropic regions are not getting warmer because nature's response to unequal heating is a heat transfer to try and equalize temperatures.
8. What are two methods of heat energy transport from the Equator to Poles? (Include names and percentages).
Circulations in the Atmosphere (60%) and Circulations in the Oceans (40%)
9. Draw the Rotating Dish Experiment and Label Parts. What two weather patterns does it illustrate?
The two weather patterns it illustrate are the jet stream and high and low pressure systems.
10. What is the Polar Jet Stream? What are the two types of Rossby wave undulations called and what air temperature is associated with each?
The polar jet stream is the boundary between cold polar air and warmer mid latitude air. The two types of Rossby waves are Ridges, which is associated with warm air, and Troughs, associated with cold air.
11. What are two ways that the Jet Stream influences the weather
Jet streams influences the weather because they intensify and guides storms, and helps move air masses.
12. Explain the balloon demo shown in class? Why did the balloon break in one case and not the other?
The balloon demo in class explains the concept of force per unit area. The balloon broke because the force was spread over less of an area when the point hit the balloon vs when the back of the pen hit the balloon because the force was spread out over a larger area.
13. Which direction does the air rotate in Highs and Low Pressure in the Northern Hemisphere? What type of weather is associated with each of these pressure systems
High pressure: clockwise, good weather. Low Pressure: counter-clockwise, bad weather.
14. What are two weather changes that are due to Pressure differences on the surface?
Causes wind to blow, causes air to rise or sink on earth's surface.
15. What is an Air Mass? What is it called and what type of weather is associate with two air masses converge?
An air mass is a huge volume of air covering hundreds of thousands of square kilometers where the Temperature and humidity are the same. We get fronts when two air masses converge or when there is a narrow transition between them that differ in temp, humidity or both. Gives rise to cloudiness and precipitation, can create storms. Fronts are the boundaries between air masses.
16. What is the butterfly effect? How can it be accounted for when using weather models
The butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state. A way to describe how, unless all factors can be accounted for, large systems like the weather remain impossible to predict with total accuracy because there are too many unknown variables to track. Flapping of a butterfly's wings in South America could affect the weather in Texas. One small thing could affect how the weather may be. That is why models are so hard to make.
17. What are three sources of weather data collection?
Surface Observations, Upper Air Observations, Remote Sensing Observations: weather satellites, radar, and Weather buoys
18. How are Upper Air Observations made in the Atmosphere (give name of instrument)? How often are the observation made?
Upper air observations are made with Radiosondes, radio equipped instrument package carried aloft by a balloon. Twice a day observations are made.
19. What is Remote Sensing? What are two type of instruments that employ this technique for monitoring the atmosphere?
Remote sensing is measurement of environmental conditions by processing signals that either emitted by an object (weather satellite) or reflected back (radar) to a signal source. Made by radar and weather satellites
20. What are the Acronyms for the two types of Weather Satellites used for monitoring the atmosphere? What is the difference between them?
GOES (geostationary operational environmental satellite) and POES (Polar operational environmental satellite), GOES orbit the planet at the same rate as the earth's rotation and in the same direction. POES provides overlapping north-south strips of images and orbits the earth vertically.
21. What are three types of images from Weather Satellites?
Visible images, Infrared Images, and water vapor images
22. Explain how a change in equilibrium can result in global warming. Include the name of the substance.
Equilibrium can be changed when one of the inputs is changed. So as we burn fossil fuels, we release carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - changes the energy balance which results in global warming. The substance is carbon dioxide
23.Explain how weather is a result of a disturbance in the atmosphere
Doesn't like to be disturbed, needs equilibrium. Atmosphere attempts to remove the disturbance and reach thermal equilibrium. Weather is a result of a thermal disturbance in the atmosphere due to unequal heating resulting from the tilt of the earth with respect to the sun
24. What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? Give an example
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from on state to another. Examples: Wind energy - mechanical energy (wind turbines) - electrical energy (electrical generators)
25. Explain the concept of Mass Balance using a circulation in the atmosphere.
Mass Balance is that in a continuous fluid (with no walls or partitions) cannot empty out a region from its mass - when fluid is taken out from one place, surrounding fluid rushes in to take up that space. Atmosphere maintains a mass balance because of circulations: if something rises in the atmosphere resulting in a loss of mass ( rising hot air) somewhere else something will try to add mas (descending cold air)
26. Explain how a low pressure at the surface results in convergence.
More coming in than going out, since there is low pressure at the surface, then there is high pressure in the atmosphere so as that leaves the low pressure rises creating convergence. Which means an increase of mass so there is an uplift to create balance.
27. What is vorticity in the atmosphere? Give one example
Vorticity is spin or turning of an air parcel in the atmosphere. When there is vorticity, there is convergence. Cutoff lows and omega blocks have large amounts of vorticity.
28. List three properties of the atmosphere that show it exhibits fluid-like behavior?
The atmosphere has Buoyancy, Convection, and Pressure varies with depth
29. What are three types of circulation in the atmosphere?
El Nino, Monsoon, Gyres
30. What are three things that may occur in the atmosphere as moist air gets cooler
It may turn into clouds, fog, and/or dew
31. What does the acronym RECC stand for? Provide a sketch
It stands for Rise, Expand, Cool, Condense. See sketch in notes (lecture six slide 17)
32. Explain how a suction cup works? Draw a sketch and provide labels of relevant parameters. Why does wetting the edge help for longer time sticking to surface?
Suction cup pushes air out when applying to a surface, external pressure is higher than inside pressure, higher pressure is a higher force holding suction cup in place. Whet edges are a good seal to prevent air from getting inside. Lecture 7 slide 4 has sketch
33. In class I demonstrated filling a cup with water and turning it upside down with a 3x5 card. Sketch and explain.
Sketch lecture 7 slide 5, Pressure due to the weight of water is less than atmospheric pressure, Patm > Pwater.
34. What is the definition of Wind? What causes the wind to blow?
Wind is the movement of air horizontally. Air is constantly moving to establish an equilibrium between areas of high and low pressure which creates wind.
35. What are lines of constant pressure shown on a weather map called? How many Millibar (mb) is typical between these lines?
They are called Isobars, there are typically 4 millibars between each isobar.
36. What is a typical value of the pressure gradient on a calm day?
3 mb/125 miles
37 . On one a weather map shows a H and lists the pressure as 1012 mb, on another day this same pressure is listed as a low. Explain
Low and High pressure are relative terms, depends on surrounding whether or not a pressure system is classified as a low or high.
38. What are three equivalent measures of 1 atmosphere?
760 mm of mercury, 1013.25 mb, 14.7 lbs/in^2
39. Sketch the change in pressure with height in the atmosphere. Give a brief explanation of the shape.
See lecture 7 slide 16
40. What is the standard temperature at sea level? What is the altitude and temperature at 850 mb and 500 mb for a standard atmosphere?
Standard temperature at sea level is 15.0 C. 850mb: 1.5 km, 5.3 C. 500mb: 5.5km, -20.7 C
41. If there is a Pressure gradient in the Vertical why doesn't air blow upward at high speed?
Upward pressure gradient force is balanced by the downward gravitational force (hydrostatic equilibrium)
42. At what height (give answer in Millibars) in the Atmosphere is Vertical Velocity measured. Besides ascending air (negative vertical velocity) what other atmospheric property is required for precipitation to occur?
Vertical velocity is measured at 700mb. Besides ascending air, we need convection. (ask for answer)
43. Sketch a barometer and indicate the height at 1 atm. Explain how it reaches an equilibrium height.
Lecture 8 slide 10. The barometer reaches an equilibrium height when the pressure of the mercury in the barometer is equal to the atmospheric pressure
44. What are three causes of Surface Pressure change?
Add/ subtract mass to column of air, change in density, push air: upward (lift) downwards (subsidence)
45. Sketch a thermal circulation near the ground. Label temperature isobars, and pressure changes at the surface and aloft.
See lecture 9 slide 6
46. Draw a sketch of the egg in the bottle experiment. How does the egg get into the bottle? How does it get out of the bottle? (Explain using pressure).
Slide 10 lecture 9. Egg gets in the bottle by lowering the pressure in the bottle by lighting the fire. Egg gets out by adding pressure when he blows air into the bottle.
47. Draw a sketch of how the upper atmosphere can influence weather conditions at the Surface
Slide 17 lecture 9
48. Why does an advancing cold front lower the air pressure?
Cold fronts lower the air pressure because cold fronts force the warmer air to rise. This causes the surface pressure to decrease in the vicinity of the front.
49. Where are two locations where low pressures can form?
The gulf of Mexico and East of the Carolina's (cape Hatteras)
50. What is a surface weather map? What is the value of the correction factor that is used to draw it?
A surface weather map is a plot of pressure values at sea level that have been corrected for altitude variations. The value of correction is 10 mb for every 328.1 ft (100 meters)
51. What is an Isobaric weather map? What is the name of the isobaric chart halfway up in the troposphere?
Maps aloft that show altitude variations at a constant pressure. The isobaric chart halfway up in the troposphere is the constant pressure surface.
52. What causes changes in geopotential height contours? Draw a sketch showing two column of air -one warm and one cold illustrating the changes.
Geopotential height contours change because the height of a given pressure surface above the ground varies with temperature. Colder temperature pressure surfaces are lower than that of a hot air one. See lecture 10 slide 11 for sketch.
53. When an isobaric surface is non- uniform or wavy what are two features that typically show up on an isobaric chart? What are their corresponding pressures?
Troughs and ridges, Troughs are low pressure, ridges are high pressure
54. What are three measurements that are typically given on an Isobaric Chart?
Dew point, Temperature, height
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