Earth Science Review
Terms in this set (58)
Where weather occurs
Layers of Atmosphere - closest to farthest from Earth's surface
Troposphere - Stratosphere - Mesosphere - Thermosphere - Exosphere
Layers of atmosphere are mainly divided based on _________.
Winds blow from _____ to _____ pressure areas.
High to Low
Levees and dams are built to prevent _________.
Unequal heating ANYWHERE (in ocean, atmosphere, Earth's crust, etc.) causes _______.
Currents or Convection Currents
Cutting trees or deforestation leads to...
1. Higher erosion b/c there is no buffer zone.
2. Faster global warming b/c less Carbon is taken in from atmosphere.
3. Less biodiversity.
Main environmental problem from burning coal
Sulfur emissions = Acid Rain
Positives of Uranium/nuclear energy and other alternative energy vs. traditional Fossil Fuel
Less greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions
3 Fossil Fuels
Coal, Oil, Natural Gas
Why is using sand to stabilize hurricane zones not a perfect solution?
It is only SHORT-TERM.
Drawing out more water from coastal aquifers (usually b/c of more development and people) may lead to this
Higher Human Population may lead to...
1. Lower access to drinking water
2. More deforestation to make neighborhoods
3. Food shortages
4. Less overall biodiversity b/c of habitat loss
Seafloor Spreading or Mid-Ocean Ridges happen at ______ boundaries.
Most common boundary for Earthquakes, like San Andreas Fault in CA
Plates collide, forming mountains
More roads and buildings in urban areas leads to...
Heat Island Effect (warmer temps b/c of pavement and less green areas)
Not normally in area, therefore hard to control b/c there are no natural predators
Example of Invasive Species
Kudzu/Kudzu Bugs/Zebra Mussel
Worst logging method - takes out whole section of forest, causes more erosion into local water
How Sun Heats Earth
Radiation thru Atmosphere
Worst Earthquake Impact on Surface
Isobars - what do they show?
Close together - faster changes in pressure in an area = higher wind/storm chance
Far apart - slower changes in pressure in an area = calmer weather/sunny
Water/Ice - physical or chemical weathering?
Physical (aka Mechanical)
What causes seasons?
Earth's TILT on its axis as it rotates around Sun
Fusion in Sun
Hydrogen nuclei FUSE/COMBINE into Helium
Why are wind, water, and gravity major agents of erosion rather than weathering?
Erosion involved MOVEMENT of earth materials from one location to another
Plants use the Sun's energy for ______ to make sugars and energy.
Sun energy = ____ energy
Earthquake Waves - p and s
P - primary, push-pull, arrive first
S - secondary, shear, arrive second
Main 2 gases in atmosphere
NO - Nitrogen and Oxygen
Of the fossil fuels, which produces the LEAST amount of solid waste?
Main threat to biodiversity
Summer in Northern Hemisphere = ________ in Southern Hemisphere
If barometric pressure falls, a ____ is imminent.
When do hurricanes usually occur?
3 common methods to help Earth
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Set up for greatest TIDES
Sun - Earth - Moon ALIGNED
Where is the ozone layer?
Why is the ozone layer good?
Protects us from Sun's harmful UV rays
What has caused hole in ozone layer?
CFC's, in Aerosols
Sun does this to produce energy (H to He)
Atoms splitting (Uranium for nuclear energy)
PROS = high yield, cheap, food may appear bigger/ brighter, less time to grow
CONS = more pesticides and fertilizers used, more energy used in transport
PROS = less chemicals (pesticides/fertilizer), less energy used in transport, support local economy
CONS = lower yield, more expensive, not as "pretty", more time to grow
Why BIODIVERSITY is important
1. Aesthetic value (beauty of life)
2. Genetic value (life depends on life)
3. Stability to ecosystem
3 Major Rock Types and Key Words
1. Igneous - volcanic, melting and cooling
2. Sedimentary - cementation, compaction, layers
3. Metamorphic - heat and pressure
Groundwater Vs. Surface Water
Surface = on SURFACE = lakes, streams, rivers
Ground = in GROUND = in aquifers, all the water in open pore spaces
Surface water becomes groundwater by sinking in through open spaces (percolation).
Water Quality Indicators - What is good?
2. Dissolved Oxygen
1. pH - 7 is neutral
2. DO - high levels best, fish/insects breathe
3. Nitrates - low levels best, otherwise eutrophication
4. Turbidity - low levels best, clear
5. Temp - colder holds more DO
Sun's radiation = ______________ waves
__________ erosion = sand dunes
How does a cold front form?
Cold air advances, causing warm air to rise
Describe the water table, zone of saturation, and zone of aeration
Weather vs. Climate - main difference
TIME. Weather = short term, Climate = long term
In coastal NC, this energy source takes advantage of land and sea breezes
Describe a food web/chain.
Main threat to biediversity
Summer in Northern Hemisphere = _______ in Northern Hemisphere
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