Fallacies

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Terms in this set (...)

Strawman
You misrepresented someone's argument to make it easier to attack
Ad Hominem
You attacked your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.
Bandwagon
You appealed to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.
Cherry Picking
You cherry-picked a data cluster to suit your argument, or found a pattern to fit a presumption.
Composition/Division
You assumed that one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it; or that the whole must apply to its parts.
False Dilemma
You presumed that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.
Burden of Proof
You said that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.
Slippery Slope
You said that if we allow A to happen, the Z will eventually happen too; therefore, A should not happen.
Appeal to Tradition
the use of historical preferences of people as evidence that the preference is correct, primarily due to the fact that traditionally has always been this way.
Middle Ground
You claimed that a compromise or middle point between two extremes must be the truth.
No True Scotsman
You made what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticism or flaws to your argument.
Argument from Incredulity (Divine Fallacy)
Dismissing an argument simply because it appears "incredible," "insane," or "crazy," or because it goes against one's own personal beliefs. This fallacy has to do with a lack of understanding of something and the dismissal of even trying to understand it.
Begging the Question
You presented a circular argument in which the conclusion was included in the premise.
Biased sample
It is coming to a conclusion about an entire population based on a sample that only represents part of the population
Confusing Cause and Effect (Post-hoc)
stating that because Events A and B often occur together, event A occurs because of event B. This is a fallacy because A and B are unrelated.
Guilt by Association
When a source is automatically viewed negatively, solely based off its association with another source that is already viewed negatively
Hasty Generalization
Making a generalization about a group based on insufficient evidence or without considering external variables.
Poisoning the Well
discredits what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information (either true or false) about that person, and mainly focuses on qualities of the person
Confirmation Bias
A logical fallacy; the tendency to only seek/believe evidence supporting one's own preexisting conclusions.
Red Herring
irrelevant subject included in an argument that diverts the reader's attention, distracts person from the actual issue
2 wrongs make a right
A fallacy of relevance, in which an allegation of wrongdoing is countered with a similar allegation; used to rebuke or renounce wrongful conduct as a response to another transgression (Essentially looking to the wrong doing of others to justify your own wrong actions)
Double Speak
To deliberately obscure, disguise, distort or switch the meaning of words by switching their order or using alternate words. Similar to euphemism.
Moral Equivalence
Seeks to draw comparisons between different, often unrelated things, to make a point that one is just as bad as the other or just as good as the other
Oversimplification
When a contributing factor or multiple complex factors are reduced to a single cause, not taking the complexity into consideration and overlooking other factors that impact an outcome.
Nirvana
when one uses a perfect idea to compare it to an opposing idea in order to make the other idea lesser or not worthwhile.
Godwin's Law
As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Hitler approaches one
Moving the Goalposts
Derived from football or other games; demanding from an opponent that he or she address more and more points after the initial counter-argument has been satisfied refusing to concede or accept the opponent's argument.
Historian's
Assuming that somebody made a decision in the past with the same information and hindsight that the person analyzing their decision had.

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