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Chapter 14 of 14

Community treatment

Using nonsecure and non-institutional residences, counseling services, victim restitution programs, and other community services to treat juveniles in their own communities.

Suppression effect

A reduction of the number of arrests per year for youths who have been incarcerated or otherwise punished.


Non-punitive, legal disposition of juveniles emphasizing community treatment, in which the juvenile is closely supervised by an officer of the court, and must adhere to a strict set of rules to avoid incarceration.

Juvenile probation officer

Officer of the court involved in all four stages of the court process—intake, predisposition, post-adjudication, and post-disposition—who assists the court and supervises juveniles placed on probation.

Social investigation report (also known as predisposition report)

Developed by the juvenile probation officer, this report includes clinical diagnosis of the juvenile and the need for court assistance, relevant environmental and personality factors, and other information to assist the court in developing a treatment plan.

Conditions of probation

Rules and regulations mandating that a juvenile on probation behave in a particular way.

Juvenile intensive probation supervision (JIPS)

A true alternative to incarceration that involves almost daily supervision of the juvenile by the probation officer assigned to the case.

House arrest

Offender is required to stay home during specific periods of time; monitoring is done by random phone calls and visits, or by electronic devices.

Electronic monitoring

Active monitoring systems consist of a radio transmitter worn by the offender that sends a continuous signal to the probation department computer; passive systems employ computer-generated random phone calls that must be answered in a certain period of time from a particular phone.

Balanced probation

Programs that integrate community protection, accountability of the juvenile offender, competency, and individualized attention to the juvenile offender; based on the principle that juvenile offenders must accept responsibility for their behavior.

Monetary restitution

Offenders compensate crime victims for out-of-pocket losses caused by the crime, including property damage, lost wages, and medical expenses.

Victim service restitution

Offenders provide some service directly to the crime victim.

Community service restitution

Offenders assist some worthwhile community organization for a period of time.

Residential programs

Residential, nonsecure facilities such as a group home, foster home, family group home, or rural home where the juvenile can be closely monitored and develop close relationships with staff members.

Group homes

Non-secured, structured residences that provide counseling, education, job training, and family living.

Foster care programs

Placement with families who provide attention, guidance, and care.

Family group homes

A combination of foster care and group home; they are run by a single family rather than by professional staff.

Rural programs

Specific recreational and work opportunities provided for juveniles in a rural setting such as a forestry camp, a farm, or a ranch.

Reform schools

Institutions in which educational and psychological services are used in an effort to improve the conduct of juveniles who are forcibly detained.

Cottage system

Housing in a compound of small cottages, each of which accommodates twenty to forty children.

Least restrictive alternative

A program with the least restrictive or secure setting that will benefit the child.

Individual counseling

Counselors help juveniles understand and solve their current adjustment problems.


Highly structured counseling in which a therapist helps a juvenile solve conflicts and make a more positive adjustment to society.

Reality therapy

A form of counseling that emphasizes current behavior, and requires the individual to accept responsibility for all of his or her actions.

Behavior modification

A technique for shaping desired behaviors through a system of rewards and punishments.

Group therapy

Counseling several individuals together in a group session.

Guided group interaction (GGI)

Through group interactions a delinquent can acknowledge and solve personal problems with support from other group members.

Positive peer culture (PPC)

Counseling program in which peer leaders encourage other group members to modify their behavior, and peers help reinforce acceptable behaviors.

Milieu therapy

All aspects of the environment are part of the treatment; meaningful change, increased growth, and satisfactory adjustment are encouraged.

Wilderness probation

Programs involving outdoor expeditions that provide opportunities for juveniles to confront the difficulties of their lives, while achieving positive personal satisfaction.

Boot camps

Programs that combine get-tough elements with education, substance abuse treatment, and social skills training.


An analysis technique that synthesizes results across many programs over time.

Right to treatment

Philosophy espoused by many courts that juvenile offenders have a statutory right to treatment while under the jurisdiction of the courts.


Transitional assistance to juveniles, equivalent to adult parole, to help youths adjust to community life.


The process and experience of returning to society upon release from a custody facility post-adjudication

Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP)

A balanced, highly structured, comprehensive continuum of intervention for serious and violent juvenile offenders returning to the community.

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