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Government Chapter 6-7
Terms in this set (105)
the right to vote
synonym for the right to vote
the people eligible to vote
citizens denied the right to vote in the nation's population
a tax imposed by several states as a qualification for voting
Foreign born residents who have not become citizens
persons who plan to live in a state for only a short time
a procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting
local election officials review the lists of registered voters and remove the ones who are no longer eligible to vote
a person's ability to read and write
advocate of the superiority of the white race, racist
a court order that either compels or restrains the performance of some act by a private individual or public official
when the department of justice approves a law or some other thing
Off Year Election
Congressional elections that occur between presidential election years
drop-off in voting from the top of the ballot to the bottom
One's own influence or effectiveness on politics
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
Difference in political views between men and women
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other
Straight ticket voting
the practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election
Split ticket voting
Voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election
people who have no party affiliation
briefly summarize the history of suffrage qualifications in this country
in the beginning of voting, only white men could vote, then women were granted this right, then finally African Americans were allowed to do this
which amendment eliminated the poll tax
the 24th amendment
what is the American electorate
the potential voting population
approximately how large is the American electorate
220 million people
what does the constitution say about the voting rights of aliens?
aliens can not vote
what is the purpose of laws requiring voter registration?
to be sure that the voters are real and don't make up fake names to vote in different sanctions and so they know that the voters are eligible
why should election officials regularly purge voter lists
so we have only eligible voters voting. this makes it fair
how has gerrymandering been used to prevent the fulfillment of the 15th amendment?
in southern states, political parties were defined as private association and excluded African Americans
what is preclearance meant to prevent?
it is meant to prevent intelligible voters from voting so we have fairly run elections
which level of government is primarily responsible for establishing voter qualifications in the united states?
why has the federal government gradually assumed a larger role in the setting of those qualifications?
because with changing circumstances over the years, like with aliens coming info the country, new qualifications must be made
identify the restrictions that prevented some citenzens from voting in the past
religious beliefs, property ownerships, tax payments, race, gender
what has been the most effective and common way to overturn those restrictions
to be wealthy, educated, to have party identification, and occupational status
why do states set residence requirements?
so people don't switch states for voting
how have state residence requirements changed over time?
No literacy test, grandfather clause, or poll taxes
why have the residence requirements changed?
civil rights movement and suffrage movement
What was the primary argument made in favor of lowering the voting age to 18?
old enough to fight, old enough to vote
how has youth participation in elections changed over time?
It has dropped because younger generations are too busy with life to vote
What was the original purpose of literacy tests?
To keep african americans from voting
What prompted the removal of literacy tests?
Civil rights movement
Why was the 15th amendment adopted?
to help minority males eligible for voting
Why was the 15th amendment largely ineffective for nearly a century?
we had no means of enforcement that would carry out the intention of amendment
what were some means used to keep african americans from voting?
Literacy tests, grandfather clause, and poll taxes
what were some of the illegal means used to keep african americans from voting?
White supremacists would use violence against african americans and they would threaten them enough to keep them from voting
How were illegal efforts to keep african americans from voting overcome?
The 24th amendment was formed to acquit all things involving literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes
what is a nonvoting voter?
An eligible voter that chooses not to vote
What is the cause of ballot fatigue?
Weather, long waiting lines, long voting process, and inconveniency
what are some of the characteristics of a likely voter?
Education, occupational skills, a source of income, and political socialization
How does a closely contested race usually affect voter turnout?
turnout is higher
what psychological factors tend to produce split ticket voting?
income, education, occupation, gender, age, religion, and ethnic background
the naming of those who will seek office
regularly scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection of office holders
group of like minded people who meet to select the cantidates they will support in an upcoming election
a nominating election in which only declared party members can vote
wide open primary
if no one wins a majority vote, the top 2 vote getters face one another to determine a nomination
where cantidates are not identified by party labels
the medium by which a voter registers a choice in an election
where people don't vote on the given day and place so they do it earlier and somewhere other than the official voting polls
when a strong cantidate running for an office at the top of the ballot helps attract voters to other cantidates or the party's ticket
place where voters in a certain precinct actually vote
political action committee
political arms of special interest groups and other organizations
grant of money given to the parties or political organizations
money given directly to the cantidates
money given to parties or political organizations
what is the purpose of nomination in the electoral system?
to choose a cantidate to run for office
in addition to primaries, what nominating methods are used in the united states?
Convention, Caucus, Petition, and self announcement
what is the difference between a closed primary and an open primary?
Closed- only declared party members can vote
open- all qualified voters can cast a ballot
what is the federal government's role in the administration of elections?
setting times, dates, and polling places
what is the role of the precinct in elections?
They represent how the voters in a precinct feel about candidates and issues, and encourage people to vote.
how have ballots changed over time?
they are electronic now
what factors have complicated the move to automated voting?
ballot security, jammed phone lines, blocked access, viruses, denial of service attacks, fraudulent vote counts
why do people contribute to political campaigns?
So they can get access to the government by helping their friends or through supporting beliefs
what are the four ways in which the FEC attempts to regulate the role of money in campaigns?
They set contribution limits, contribution expenditures, provide funding for parts of the election process, and the timely disclosure of campaign finance data
What is the role of political action committees in the political process?
special interest groups that seek to change public policy because they are interested in the outcome of elections
what is the difference between the nominating process and the election stages in the political process?
there will be more cantidates than there are for actual elections
why does the two party system make the nominating process so significant?
this divide is important because both parties have their own significant views and ideas
what factors led to the convention replacing the caucus as a widely used nominating method?
we want our voters to educate themselves without outside opinions conflicting with our own beliefs that affect our voting choices
how well did the convention method succeed in improving upon the caucus method?
It improved it because now voters are more likely to freely vote on their nominees without outside opinions affecting their choice
what is the role of political parties in primary elections?
the role of being options for voters to choose to be a part of
Why might a political party object to the use of a blanket primary?
because they want their whole party to vote for their designated cantidate
are closed primaries a fair way to nominate cantidates?
no because anybody, member or not, should be able to vote
provide three examples of areas in which the federal government has established election law?
fixing times, places, and manner of election holding
what are the goals of the federal government in regulating elections?
it ensures that elections are free, honest, and accurate
what are some of the problems that the secret ballot is designed to prevent?
dishonest voting and anonymous voters
how did the Australian ballot improve the voting process?
by making people feel more anonymous and free to vote for who they choose
why do you think there has been an interest in automating the voting process?
it is cheaper to run and easier and quicker to use
what are the possible benefits and drawbacks of voting via the internet?
benefits- quicker and easier to use
drawbacks- need power and an internet connection
do the advantages of voting via the internet outweigh it's drawbacks?
yes because 9 times out of 10, the internet works and it is quicker to use than pen and paper
what factors affect how much money is spent in a political campaign?
regulations that the US department of justice sets to keep people from spending over 2500 on a single party or candidate
how do campaign contributions help candidates running for office?
candidates need money because they can't always afford to run for nominations if they don't have a certain amount of money
does the private rather than the public financing of campaigns make elections more effective?
no because if it is public, it gains more attention and maybe even more voters for the campaigner
the supreme court has held that campaign contributions are a form of political speech, do you agree or disagree?
I agree be sure if you are going to give your hard earned money to a nominee, you have to have some form of interest in them
gave African American men the right to vote
allowed people to vote if their father or grandfather had voted before Reconstruction
Literacy Test Act (1917)
test for African Americans to decide if they were granted the right to vote or not
taxes levied as a qualification for voting
19th Amendment (1920)
Said that people don't have to pay a tax, called a poll tax, in order to vote
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
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