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AP European History Chapter 24
Terms in this set (85)
English engineer and inventor. Best known for his new way to manufacture steel.
The Solvay process
A process made by Ernest Solvay for producing soda ash. It was used for water treatment, glass making, making soaps and detergents, making paper, as a common base, making sodium bicarbonate, (baking soda), and for the removal of sulfur dioxide.
German engineer and automobile manufacturer who produced the first high-speed internal combustion engine (1834-1900)
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
This was a predominant, horizontally integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
British Shell Oil
A british petroleum company competing directly with Rockefeller's Standard Oil. Had to merge with Royal Dutch Petroleum to stay competitive.
Royal Dutch Petroleum
A Dutch petroleum company competing directly with Rockefeller's Standard Oil. Had to merge with British Shell Oil to stay competitive.
London Great Exhibition of 1851
It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the spouse of the reigning monarch, Victoria. It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time, including Charles Darwin, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Lewis Carroll, and George Eliot.
a cast-iron and glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in the Palace's 990,000 square feet (92,000 m2) of exhibition space to display examples of the latest technology developed in the Industrial Revolution
William Henry Smith
born in Lt. Thurlow, Suffolk, he was an entrepreneur whose business was about both newsagents and book shops. He ran his business in London, where he died. The family business evolved into the chain bearing his name.
a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their steel production and for their manufacture of ammunition and armaments. They were the largest company in Europe by the beginning of the 20th century.
these people sought to distance themselves from lower-class and pursued to advance through education or career advancement.
Associated with the rebuilding of Paris. Made it "revolution-proof". Made it more sanitary and hospitable. Made the streets too broad for revolutionaries to be able to barricade them. New importance was given to trains, as well.
The rapid transit rail system in Paris masterminded by Georges Haussmann.
An iron structure that dominates the skyline of Paris. When it was built in the nineteenth century, it was the tallest freestanding structure in the world.
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food. Gave soldiers hell until after the Crimean War, when military nursing began to develop.
Louis Rene Villerme
a French doctor who later in life became an economist who wrote about social issues. His most famous work was "Tableau de l'état physique et moral des ouvriers employés dans les manufactures de coton, de laine et de soie" (Study of the Physical Condition of Cotton, Wool and Silk workers)
reformer-one of the most famous-one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers under Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834-convinced that disease and death caused poverty-believed that disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment-publicized hard facts about filth of cities and living environments-report became basis for Britain's first public health law
Built along the Thames, thick walls of concrete and granite housing sewers, gas, and water pipes. Intended to protect low-lying areas of Lambeth from flooding wile providing a new highway to bypass local congested streets.
Public Health Act 1848
Formed the local boards of public health in England. The aim of this act was to improve sanitary conditions of towns and populous places in england and Wales by placing the supply of water, sewerage, drainage, cleansing and paving under a single local body
Melun Act 1851
One of the first acts in France passed regarding public health. It was optional when passed (French people) and was only fully applied in Paris by Georges Haussmann.
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
German bacteriologist who isolated the anthrax bacillus and the tubercle bacillus and the cholera bacillus. Allowed him to create vaccines for the diseases.
English surgeon, taught doctors the importance of washing hands before operating. First to use antiseptics.
Victor A. Huber
A German Social reformer, travel writer, and literature historian. Proposed a new social model to improve the life conditions of low wage workers. He named it "internal occupation"
Prime Minister of France from December 1876 to May 1877. He was a French statesman and philosopher, one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republicans faction. Refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the government of Louis Napoleon.
Married Women's Property Act 1882
Allowed women of England to own and control their own property.
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
The Subjection of Women
An essay written by John Stuart Mill. Argued in favor of equality between the sexes. It was an affront to the conventional norms of views on the status of men and women.
middle class British woman, brought together 16 organizations to form "National Union of Woman's Suffrage Societies", PEACEFUL REFORM, efforts did not succeed- widespread opposition
was an English political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement, which helped women win the right to vote. She was extremely miltant, and violent in her protests.
The members of the feminist movement who were working to win women the right to vote.
French suffragette who wrote "Arab Women in Algeria". she pushed for total equality between men and women, even after French women's wages were raised.
National Council of French Women
An umbrella organization for all of the feminist organizations in France.
Union of German Women's Organization
An umbrella organization for all of the feminist organizations in Germany.
The idea of workers of a common trade organizing and working together to improve something about their job, raising from wages to hours to working conditions. Shook the 19th and early 20th centuries.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
first convened in 1864, it was also known as the International Working Men's Association. It was an eclectic gathering eventually headed by Karl Marx, who used the First International to spread his ideas about socialism and the need for revolution in the capitalist society. Members of the thishoped that the Paris Commune would be the spark for revolution across Europe, although it obviously failed.
illigitament son of a servant girl. an errand boy at 8 then a trapper coal mine. organized scottish miners union. first to win a seat in the house of commons who was a indepedent laborer.
Taff Vale Decision
commonly known as the Taff Vale case is a formative case in UK labour law. It held that at common law, unions could be liable for loss of profits to employers that were caused by taking strike action. It was made with outrage by the labour movement, was a central cause in the establishment of the UK Labour Party and was soon reversed by the Trade Disputes Act 1906.
The Trades Union Congress
A federation of trade unions in England, representing a majority of trade unions in England. This was an effective way to balance the sometimes conflicting interests of different trades.
socialist but non-Marxian-reflected well-established union movement-formally committed to gradual reform in England
an association of British socialists who advocate gradual reforms within the law leading to democratic socialism
Sidney and Beatrice Webb
These two people led the Fabian Society in England.
British author (1866-1946), wrote mainly science fiction including "The War of the Worlds","The Time Machine", and "The Invisible Man"
an English socialist, social psychologist, educationalist, and a leader of the Fabian Society. Resigned from the Fabian Society to protest the Webbs' support for Joseph Chamberlain's tariff policy.
George Bernard Shaw
an Irish playwright. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. Nearly all his writings deal sternly with prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy to make their stark themes more palatable. Shaw examined education, marriage, religion, government, health care and class privilege.
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).
a French Socialist leader. Initially an Opportunist Republican, he evolved into one of the first social democrats, becoming the leader, in 1902, of the French Socialist Party, which opposed Jules Guesde's revolutionary Socialist Party of France. Both parties merged in 1905 in the French Section of the Workers' International
a French socialist journalist and politician. Led the Socialist Party of France, which later merged with the French Socialist Party to become the French Section of the Workers' International.
a French socialist politician. He was President of France from 23 September 1920 to 11 June 1924 and Prime Minister of France 20 January to 23 September 1920. His participation in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the turn of the century, alongside the marquis de Galliffet who had directed the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune, sparked a debate in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and in the Second International about the participation of socialists in "bourgeois governments".
lasted from 1889-1914-formed by socialist leaders- a federation of national socialist parties-great psychological impact-delegates met to interpret Marxian doctrines and plan coordinated action
International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam
took place from 24 August to 31 August 1907. It gathered delegates from 14 different countries, among which important figures of the anarchist movement.
Generale du Travail
General Confederation of Labor. the first of five major French confederations of trade unions.
The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society.
Reflections on Violence
one of the many works of Sorel, in which he proclaimed that violence between the classes was a good thing, even if the outcome was not any different than the previous status quo. This reflects his attitude towards 19th century society. Moreover, in this work he alerted the working class to always be ready to take action against the bourgeoisie in the action of a "general strike."
The Social Democratic Party
major German socialist party
German-Jewish jurist and socialist political activist. Founded the General German Workers' Association (ADAV). Marx's supporters did not join it. It later became the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
A German Social democrat, who co-founded the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
1889, criticized german colonial engagements, only for rich gains, exploitation of business
a German program that declared the imminent doom of capitalism and the necessity of socialist ownership of the means of production. It intended to pursue these goals through legal political participation rather than revolutionary activity.
a Czech-German philosopher and politician. He was a leading theoretician of Marxism. He became the leading promulgator of Orthodox Marxism after the death of Friedrich Engels.
German social democratic theoretician and politician, a member of the SPD, and the FOUNDER of evolutionary SOCIALISM and REVISIONISM.
This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
A tough finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness, Helped Alexander III and Nicholas II rule. He was smart, created protective tariffs, high taxes. and planned ecenomic development, and cooperation with France
A railroad across Siberia that geographically united Russia. Allowed for materials, correspondence, etc. to be passed more quickly through Russia, allowing industry to grow.
Peasant communities, held their lands communally with the other peasants in the community.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Social Revolutionary Party
Russian political party that opposed industrialism, looking to rural Russia as a model for the future
Also known as the Cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia. More conservative than the Octobrists.
elected local rural governments allow some democracy without weakening the central government
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924). Also known as Lenin.
The Communist Party of Russia. Based their ideology on Karl Marx's works.
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. THE Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
A war fought between Russia and Japan. The Russian and Japanese Empires had conflicting interests, Russia wanted warm water ports, and Japan wanted to expand their land mass. They duked it out for Manchuria and Korea.
Manchurian port that RU wanted to capture when it bumped heads w/ JP & was dealt a really embarrassing blow
he led the workers who went to the Winter Palace with a petition for the improvement of industrial conditions. This riot was put down in a massacre known as Bloody Sunday.
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
Russian councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
served as Nicholas II's Chairman of the Council of Ministers—the Prime Minister of Russia—from 1906 to 1911. His tenure was marked by efforts to repress revolutionary groups, as well as for the institution of noteworthy agrarian reforms. Stolypin hoped, through his reforms, to stem peasant unrest by creating a class of market-oriented smallholding landowners. He is often cited as one of the last major statesmen of Imperial Russia with a clearly defined political programme and determination to undertake major reforms.
Grigory Efimovich Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsaritsa Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsaritsa Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsaritsa Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death.
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