Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 4

Lessons 1, 2, and 3 vocab words.
day-to-day condition of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, and other factors
average year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time
environmental conditions within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
greenhouse effect
process in which certain gases trap sunlight energy in Earth's atmosphere as heat
ability of an organism to survive and reproduce under circumstances that differ from their optimal conditions
area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
competitive exclusion principle
principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
relationship in which two species live close together
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and harms it
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
ecological succession
series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
primary succession
succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
secondary succession
type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances
polar zone
Cold climate zone where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
temperate zone
Moderate climate zone between the polar zones and the tropics
tropical zone
Warm climate zone that receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year round
biotic factor
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact
abiotic factor
non-living parts of an organism's habitat.
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
A layer of shorter plants that grow in the shade of a forest canopy.
A tree or shrub that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
refers to trees that produce seed-bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition of living organisms
Biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
Layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
Tiny organisms that float in the water
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
An ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year.
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
Collective term for animal and plant remains and other dead matter.
salt marsh
Temperate-zone estuary dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line and by seagrasses under water
mangrove swamp
coastal wetland dominated by mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants
photic zone
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
aphotic zone
Permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
Prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat
coastal ocean
marine zone that extends from the low-tide mark to the end of the continental shelf
kelp forest
coastal ocean commmunity named for its dominant organism-kelp, a giant brown alga
coral reef
A structure built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.
Bottom-dwelling organisms.

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