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The Sociological Perspective and Culture

Chapter 1 and 2

The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.

The Sociological Perspective

What elements did C. Wright Mills attribute as being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior?


When sociologists' group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.

Social Location

The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people's lives, particularly how people are influenced by ________.


The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ________.

C. Wright Mills

What are the natural sciences?

Branch of science that deals with the physical world

The first goal of each scientific discipline is to ________.

Looking for why something happened

The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.

Auguste Comte

What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?

Scientific Method

The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.

social Darwinism/survival of the fittest

Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.

Class conflict

Heslin's experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of ________.

Culture Shock

Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.


Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ________.

Material Culture

Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply about culture?

We don't actually notice are own culture because it is relative.

In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made the comment, "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of ________.


When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply best qualifies as an example of ________.


Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as ________.


Without language, human culture would ________.

not exist

The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world were ________.

Sapir and Whorf

Receiving the Medal of Honor and making the Dean's List are both examples of ________.

positive sanctions

The notion that language determines our consciousness is the basic premise of which concept?

sapir whorf hypothesis

Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the "Girls Gone Wild" video. What sociological theory does this describe?

Moral Holiday

Socialization and Social Structure

Chapters 3 and 4

In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to ________.

how one is raised and learns from its surroundings.

Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted? (Jeannie)

the key to acquiring basic human traits is our social environment.

The research in the early 1960s using rhesus monkeys to demonstrate the importance of intimate physical contact in the rearing of animals was conducted by ________.


What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that "society makes us human"?

sociologists refer to nurture

What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?

contact comfort

The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the "looking-glass self," was developed by ________.

Charles Cooley

Our image of how others see us is called the ________.

Looking-glass self

Tory is 5 years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage.


According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ________ stage.


According to Piaget, when children are capable of abstract thinking, they have reached the level of development called the ________.

Formal Operation stage

The technique created by Sigmund Freud for the treatment of emotional problems through long-term, intensive exploration of the subconscious mind is referred to as ________.

psycho analysis

The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.

gender socialization

In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure-seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?


Social Groups and Bureaucracies

Chapter 6 and 7

What term best applies to people who share a culture and a territory?

A society

What are the characteristics a group of people must share to qualify as a society?

Culture & Territory

What did Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrate?

Group pressure makes people conform

Some social analysts believe that postindustrial society will be followed by a biotech society. Such a society would be characterized by ________.

an economy that centers on modifying genetics.

There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?

secondary group

What type of group plays the most significant role in the development of the self.

primary group

If a secondary group does not satisfy one's need for intimate association, which of the following is most likely to occur?

the groups tend to break down into primary groups.

Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.


For many college professors, their own teachers served as role models. Kody Scott looked up to older gang members as his idols. In both cases, former teachers and older gang members qualify as being ________.

Reference groups

Jane, Mark, Courtney, and Kelly are enrolled in the 8:00 a.m. sociology course at their college. After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in class and chose to work together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a trip as a group. These four students would be considered members of a(n) ________.


________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.

Social Network

According to Georg Simmel, which type of group is the most unstable?


What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?

that when an order is given from. higher power one will most likely comply and perform the ordered task

Samantha works for an organization that is hierarchical and has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, one in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works for a(n) ________.


The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide their operations. Even though their respective activities and membership rosters indicate significant differences, all three would share the classification of being ________.


Samantha works for an organization that is hierarchical and has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, one in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works for a(n) ________.


The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a feeling of powerlessness, is called ________.


Sam, an aspiring and talented young attorney, has been promoted every year since he joined the law firm of Howard, Howard, and Fine. Unfortunately, Sam feels he cannot handle the responsibilities of his latest promotion. In an effort to keep his newly acquired job title, Sam has begun to take credit for the work done by the employees he supervises. Sam's behavior is an example of ________.


The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organizations, and many groups that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of ________.

voluntary associations

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.

iron law of oligarchy

According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, why do "hidden values" exist in an organization?

Stereotypes remain hidden to everyone

Bob works at an automobile factory that organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. These are examples of attempts to ________.

humanizing the work setting

It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a fringe benefit for their employees. What has evaluative research found regarding the costs and benefits of these facilities?


__________ refers to preconceived ideas of what someone is like that lead to the person's behaving in ways that match the stereotype.

Self-fulfilling Stereotypes

Based on the research of Rosabeth Moss Kanter, what is meant by the term "hidden" corporate culture?


In the bureaucratic structure of a medium-sized university, approximately where would one find the instructor for this course, provided that he or she is not the chair of the sociology department?


A Bureaucratic model that is a composite of the most efficient and highest-rated characteristics of many specific examples is called a(n) ________.


Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of last year's Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to ________.

escape alienation

When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.

Goal Displacement

Deviance + Stratification and Social Class

Chapters 8, 9 and 10

Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

Culture relativity of deviance

Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.


What is the concept of the relativity of deviance?

deviance is only deviant in certain societies based off of how people react to it. (what one society deems deviant may not be deemed deviant in another society).

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

social control

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

Positive Sanction

Explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are most aligned with which discipline?


Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?

Control theory

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.


In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.

Techniques of Neutralization

Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?


Conflict theorists classify the few who own the means of production as ________.


The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

Social stratification

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