Introduction to Engineering and Design EOC Study Guide
Period 2 IED Mrs. Windolph
Terms in this set (185)
How might we create the best possible solution to a problem?
Engineers try to think "outside the box" in order to solve new problems or find ways to improve current solutions.
What is the most effective way to generate potential solutions to a problem? How many alternate solutions should you generate?
Brainstorming with a group, research and testing possible solutions.
What is the definition of engineering?
Engineering is the application of mathematics and scientific principles to better or improve life.
What is an engineer?
An engineer is a person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
What types of work do engineers do?
Research, Develop, Design, Supervise, Manage, Production and Construction, Operations, Plant Management and Sales.
Why keep an engineering notebook?
An engineering notebook is recognized as a legal document that is used in patent activities to: prove the origin of an idea that led to a solution, prove when events or ideas occurred, prove diligence in turning the idea into a solution, prove when an idea became a working solution or "reduced to practice."
What are the four best practices for the engineering notebook?
Be neat, accurate, legible and thorough.
Explain the concept of proportion.
Paying close attention to the underlying basic shapes and the relative proportions of various features of the object will allow you to more accurately reflect the true shapes and proportions of the object in your sketch.
Why would the ability to create realistic sketches make a person a more competent designer?
Representing existing objects and new ideas with sketches can make the design process more efficient and greatly enhance the ability of others to understand your ideas, allowing them to communicate their ideas more clearly.
What is the purpose of sketching your ideas?
Sketches provide a means through which one can quickly and clearly communicate ideas.
a new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion.
A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials and human capabilities. A limitation or restriction.
An iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted into products or systems that meet human needs and wants or solve problems. A plan of drawing produced to show the look and functino or workings of something before it is built or made. A decorative pattern.
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. the design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the soultion must be executed.
An engineering notebook is a book in which an engineer will formally document, in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
What are the Design Process procedures?
1. Define Problem
2. Generate Concepts
3. Develop a Solution
4. Construct and Test Prototype
5. Evaluate Solution
6. Present Solution
Types of Engineering?
Chemical Engineering, Civil and Construction Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineernig, Agricultural Engineering, Architectural Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering
The representation of light and shade on a sketch or map.
A line which defines the center of arcs, circles, or symmetrical parts.
Line which represents where a dimension starts and stops.
A line which represents distance.
A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object.
Line lightly drawn lines to guide drawing other lines and shapes.
A line type the represents and edge that is not directly visible.
A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection.
Line which indicates dimensions of arcs, circles and detail.
Oblique pictorial where depth is represented as half scaled compared to the height and width scale.
Oblique pictorial where height, width, and depth are represented at full scale.
A sketch that shows an object's height, width and depth in a single view.
A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.
A form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye.
A drawing which contains views of an object projected onto tow or more othographic planes.
A form of pictorial in which an object is represented as true width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle.
What are the 3 spatial dimensions?
Height, Width and Depth
Technical Working Drawing
A drawing that is used to show the material, size and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes.
The degree of closeness of measurements to the actual or accepted value.
The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result.
How can statistical and analyzed date be used to inform, justify, and validate a design or process?
Statistics are commonly used in manufacturing processes to control and maintain quality. A statistical analysis is used to determine measures of central tendency and variation of the data.
What is dimensional analysis and how can it help solve problems involving quantities?
Preforming a dimensional analysis on a part will assure that all needed dimensions to create the part have been included. This will insure the part is made correctly.
Why do engineers generally adhere to a set of dimensioning standards and guidelines?
In manufacturing, a part must be dimensioned fully and correctly and to the proper precision. Otherwise, the part may not function properly or may not fit into an assembly as intended. Dimensioning errors can lead to a delay in production time, increased design and manufacturing costs, and a potentially unsafe product.
Why is placement of your dimensions so important?
So they can be read clearly without confusion.
How can you use units to help you solve a problem?
If the units are all the same, communication of size and shape are understood without confusion.
Why do designers need to fully dimension a part?
A fully dimensioned part is required to communicate clearly how th epart is to be constructed.
What does it mean when a sketch is over dimensioned?
A sketch is over dimensioned when the same measurement/dimension is on 2 or more of the views, such as the overall width placed in both the front and top views. This can caused confusion and increase the probability of the part being constructed incorrectly.
A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting and drawing conclusions based on data.
Measure of the spread of data values.
A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph.
The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
Diference between the largest and smallest values that occur in a set of data.
A measure of center in a set of numerical data.
The digits in a decmial number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity.
The center of a distribution: mean, median or mode.
A measuring instrument having two adjustable jaws typically used to measure distance or thickness.
What is the role of models in the design process?
Provides a visual for all to see and helps them to see the viability of the idea.
How can we ise technology to make the design and manufacture of a product more efficient and less prone to error.
Allows us to investigate the properties digitally before it is built physically.
What is the purpose of a portfolio?
The purpose of a portfolio is to effectively communicate the details of a project.
How do you decide what information to include in a portfolio?
Title page, working technical drawings and an "exploded" presentation page with a parts list.
A visual, mathematical,or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original.
To add explanatory notes to a drawing.
A part or elemtn of a larger whole.
A physical representation of an object. Prototypes and appearance models are physical models.
An enlarged or reduced representation of an object that is usually intended for study purposes.
Constant, non-numerical relationships between the parts of a geometric figure. Examples include parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.
A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces.
The process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better and to improve decisions.
Drawing that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.
What are physical properties and why are they important to the design of a product?
The material it is made of, its mass, density, etc.
What advantage do Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) provide over traditional paper and pencil design?
The advantage of CAD is that it is easily modified, and reproducible. Usually faster to produce. Can be looked at in 3 dimensions and seen at different angles.
How does the material chosen for a product impact the design of the product?
It determines the products weight and density, its durability, etc.
A triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
Center of Gravity
A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.
3D point defining the geometric center of a solid.
A straight or curved line that intersects a circle or arc at one point only.
A triangle located round a polygon such as a circle. To draw a figure around another, touching it at points but not cutting it.
The lines of intersection created from three mutually perpendicular planes, with the three planes' point of intersection at the centroid of the part.
The measures of mass density is a measure of mass per volume.
The amount of three-dimensional space occupied by an object or enclosed within a container.
To draw a figure within another so that their boundaries touch but do not intersect.
A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees.
A curve formed at the interior intersection between two or more surfaces.
A triangle that has a 90 degree angle.
How is a geometric constraint different from a numeric constraint in the inventor program?
Geometric constraint "bonds" two geometric parts (surfaces, edges, centers) together (i.e. mate, flush). A numeric constraint is a measurement or distance and constrains an object to be a certain length.
What advantages do CAD sketches have over freehand sketches?
It is usually faster to produce and more accurate. Can be looked at in 3 dimensions and seen at different angles.
What 3D CAD functions could be used to create a wire paper clip?
What feature would be used to create a 3D representation of a baseball or softball bat that was created on a wood lathe?
What do you need to know in order to perform a physical property analysis?
What material it is made of and dimensions of the object.
Why is it important to perform a physical property analysis prior to producing a part?
In order to find the weight and density.
Why is it important to understand the mathematics used in physical property analysis?
The mathematics is important for you to determine the volume, density, mass, weight and size of the object you are developing.
A work point is an independent entity whose location is defined in _________. Work points may be placed or projected onto __________, _________, or onto an _____ or _________. Work points can be constrained to the _____ points of arcs, circles, and ellipses.
space, part faces, linear edges, arc, circles, center
A work axis is a line that extends forever into ___ directions. Work axes are useful for locating the ______ of a ____ or ________, are used in the creation of ________ features, and may be ___________ to in assembly models.
two, center, hole, cylinder, revolved, constrained
Work planes are continuous ___ ____________ planes that can be used to establish ________ planes. ___________ constraints can also be applied to work planes.
two dimensional, sketch, assembly
Why do engineering perform reverse engineering on products?
Engineers perform reverse engineering on an item to learn how it operates and how internal parts were constructed, documentation, discovery, investigation, product improvement.
Symmetry in which both halves of a composition are not identical. Also referred to as informal balance.
The correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a median line or about central axis. Also referred to as formal balance.
The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure.
A condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions. There are three types of visual balance: symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.
Having the three dimensions of length, width, and depth. Also referred to as a solid. The organization, placement, or relationship of basic elements, as volumes or voids in a sculpture, so as to produce a coherent image.
The property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light.
A regularly recurring sequence of events or actions.
The art of combining text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, books, etc.
The state of being noticeable different from something else when put or considered together.
The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface, substance or fabric.
A repeated decorative design.
Symmetry about a central axis.
The lightness or darkness of a color in relation to a scale ranging from white to black.
The process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail.
The two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area, in contrast to three-dimensional form.
Special importance, value, or prominence given to something.
What considerations should be made in when reverse engineering?
Visual Analysis, Functional Analysis, Structural Analysis
What makes a product aesthetically pleasing or eye-catching?
Elements of design: Color, value, form, shape, texture, line, point, balance; symmetry, radial, and asymmetry, emphasis, contrast, rhythm, proportion, unity and economy.
How are principles and elements of design used with engineering practice to develop a successful product?
They are incorporated into the visual, functional and structural analysis to develop a product that is not only aesthetically pleasing but also economical reproducible that solves the problem.
Why do engineers need to understand the design principles and elements when designing or innovating a produce?
Engineers use color, value, form, shape, texture, line, point, balance; symmetry, radial and asymmetry, emphasis, contrast, rhythm, proportion, unity and economy to make it as aesthetically pleasing, while still being functional, as possible.
A system input/output model helps to determine what about a product we are re-engineering/innovating?
A black box systems model is used to identify what goes into and out of the product in order to make it work as a system. The "black box" is used to represent the product's internal components or processes, which are deemed unknown at this point.
Describe how important it is to have good interpersonal communication skills in a technically related field, such as engineering and design.
You must be able to communicate clearly and succinctly with the people with whom you work in-order for them to understand how your design is going to solve the problem at hand.
Arcs and circles are dimensioned in views that _______.
Show the arc or circle
Arcs are dimensioned with a _____ to identify the _______; in some cases, a center mark is included.
Circles should have a ______ mark and are dimensioned with a ______ to identify the ________.
center, leader, diameter
What is an offset and how is it used?
An offset is used when constraining two parts and you don't want to constrain them completely flush (you might offset one part so that it sticks out from another part).
What is the difference between a mate and flush constraint?
Mate: two surface face to face.
Flush: two surfaces side by side or two edges side by side.
What constraint would you use to place a pin inside a hole?
What is a sub-assembly? How is it useful in the assembly of a complex product that involves multiple parts?
A sub-assembly is when some of the parts of a product are put together, and then those sub-assemblies are put together in one total assembly.
Why is detailed documentation important in the design of a product?
If documentation is incomplete, the part cannot be produced as it was intended to be made.
Angled surface may be dimensioned using __________ method to specify the ___ location distances of the angle.
Angled surfaces may also be dimensioned using the _______ method by specifying ___ location for distance and the angle.
What needs to be answered in a Design Brief.
Client/ End User/ Target Consumer, Problem Statement, Design Statement, Constraints
What is a Decision Matrix?
It is used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria that are often based on project requirements.
Identifying Ideas or Alternatives
Cost, Re-usability, Geometry, Connections, Cleanliness, Resilience, Test-ability, Function, Product Life Span, Development time, Size, Material costs, Development costs, Manufacturing costs, Company standards, Manufacturing capabilities and safety.
Importance of Technical Writing
Type of expository writing that is used to convey information to a particular audience for a particular technical or business purpose.
Communicate technical information and conclusions about projects to customers, managers, legal authority figures, and other engineers.
What do technical reports contain?
Front Matter: Title Page, Abstract, Table of Contents, List of Tables and Figures, Text: Summary, Introduction, Methods, Assumptions, Procedures, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, References, Back Matter: Appendices, List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Acronyms
A system of dimensioning which requires all numerals, figures, and notes to be aligned with the dimension lines so that they may be read from the bottom (for horizontal dimensions) and from the right side (for vertical dimensions).
Baseline Dimensioning System
Dimensioning in which all dimensions are placed from a datum and not from feature to feature.
Also known as point-to-point dimensioning where dimensions are established from one point to the next.
The largest and smallest possible boundaries to which a feature may be made as related to the tolerance of the dimension.
A location dimension that defines the relationship of features of an object.
A dimension, usually without a tolerance, used for information purposes. A reference is a repeat of a given dimension or established from other values shown on a drawing. Reference dimensions are enclosed in ( ) on the drawing.
A dimensioning system where each dimension originates from a common surface, plane, or axis. Also known as baseline dimensioning.
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension.
The acceptable amount of dimensional variation that will still allow an object to function correctly.
The designation of the size established for a commercial product.
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions form the specified dimension.
The tightest possible fit between two mating parts.
Limits the size of mating parts so that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled.
The amount of overlap that one part has with another when assembled.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of a voluntary consensus standards in the U.S.
A type of expository writing that is used to convey information for technical or business purposes.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the U.S.
A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM
International Organization for Standardization (IOS)
This is a worldwide organization that creates engineering standards.
A tool used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria.
The activity of gathering information about consumers' needs and preferences.
A view that is used to show features that is located on an inclined surface in true size and shape.
Thin lines used in a section view to indicate where the cutting place line has cut through material.
A section of an object broken away to reveal an interior feature for a sectional drawing.
Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.
A sectional drawing based on a cutting place line that extends completely through an object.
A view that is used to show a magnified view of features that are too small to adequately specify in another view.
A drawing that contains all the information for making one part of the design.
A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that cuts through one-quarter of an object. A half section reveals half of the interior and half of the exterior.
Used to show "inside" details not apparent on the exterior of the part.
Cutting Plane Line
A line drawn on a view where a cut was made in order to define the location of the imaginary section plane.
A hole that does not go completely through the work piece.
Gradual diminution of width or thickness in an elongated object.
A cylindrical recess around a hole, usually to receive a bolt head or nut.
Has internal threads.
A conical-shaped recess around a hole, often used to receive a tapered screw.
A line used to show the alternate positions of an object or matching part without interfering with the main drawing.
An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible.
The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
A relatively thin flat member acting as a brace support. Also called a web.
A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size of location of a geometric figure.
A property of a system whose value determines how the system will behave.
A CAD modeling method that uses parameters to define the size and geometry of features and to create relationships between features. Changing a parameter value updates all related features of the model at once.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The U.S. federal agency with a mission to protect human health and the environment.
The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or work-space so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.
Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training; outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
The moral principles governing or influencing conduct.
Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.