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35 terms

unit 4- sensation (psychology)

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bottom up
sensory analysis with info passing from senses to the brain; based on the information from the visual field
top down
begins in the brain and filters through our own personal expectations and experiences to produce perceptions of what we see, feel, hear, etc.
absolute threshold
minimum stimulation necessary for awareness 50% of the time; varies by individual and circumstances
psychophysics
the study of the relationship between physical characteristics and our perception of them
difference thresholds
our ability to distinguish between two stimuli 50% of the time
weber's law
two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion
sensory adaptation
diminishing sensitivity to odors, sounds, touches, etc., over time
sclera
tough, outer coat, which is opaque in the front, where it bulges out to form a transparent
iris
colored muscle surrounding the pupil- controls the size of the pupil opening
pupil
adjustable opening in the center of the eye, regulates the amount of light
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
retina
contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of information; also contains bipolar and ganglion cells; connected to the optic nerve
rods
dispersed throughout the back of the retina- black, white, and grey; dim light)
cones
clustered at the fovea- color vision; bright light
fovea
in the retina; central point of vision
trichromatic theory
proposed that the retina has three types of color receptors
opponent-process theory
proposed that two additional color processes red-green and yellow-blue and black-white; response to one color inhibits the other; color processing occurs in two stages
semicircular canal
controls vestibular sense
cochlea
has little hairs that vibrate- "brain in the ear"
vestibular sense
relies on the semicircular canals in the inner ear to maintain the body's balance
phantom limb pain
very real pain; the brain still receives messages even though the limb is gone
gate- control theory
use of alternative treatments such as acupuncture, or electric stimulation- tricks the brain by sending messages via larger nerves
smell
anything "olfactory"
gestalt principle
to make a whole out of pieces
grouping
to zoom in on one figure and put it on a "background"
proximity
assuming something is together if they are close to each other
similarity
grouping like things together
continuity
continuation of the "line"
closure
tendency to fill the gaps
correctedness
tendency to "fix" things
Gibson and walk
depth perception- tendency to see things in 3D so that we can judge distance
monocular cues
adjusting to using just one eye to judge distance or relative height
phi phenomena
when two adjacent stationery lights blink off and on in such quick succession that an illusion of movement is created
stroboscopic movement
quick, successive, briefly flashed images as in animated cartoons
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects correctly regardless of distance, light, angle, etc.