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an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation


in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness


according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware


the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)


controls your biological clock, regulating changes in blood pressure, body temperature, pulse, blood sugar levels, hormonal levels, activity levels, sleep and wakefulness over 24 hours in normal environment (25 hours in a place without normal night-day)

circadian rhythms

The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal, sleep, wakefulness, and attention

stage 1 sleep

quick sleep stage with gradual loss of responsiveness to outside, drifting thoughts, and images (the hypnagogic state). EEGs show theta waves.

stage 2 sleep

lasts about 20 minutes; periodic "sleep spindles" or bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity; waken up easily, but definitely asleep; sleep talking can occur at this stage or any other sleep stage

stage 3 sleep

a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep

stage 4 sleep

The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation

REM sleep

a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs


a recurring sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur


an inability to sleep


a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

night terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, they occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered


a phenomenon primarily occurring in non-REM sleep in which people walk while asleep

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

activation-synthesis theory

the theory that dreams result from the brain's attempt to make sense of random neural signals that fire during sleep

cognitive information processing theory

the theory that dreams are the interplay of brain waves and psychological functioning of interpretive parts of the mind, content of dream reflects dreamer's learned knowledge, process info of each day


dreamlike thought process that occurs when a person is awake


a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion


The focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation

psychoactive drug

a drug that can produce mood changes and distorted perceptions


a drug that reduces excitability and calms a person


a drug that produces numbness or stupor


a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process


a psychoactive drug that induces hallucinations or altered sensory experiences

psychological dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

physiological dependence

a condition in which the user has a chemical need for the drug

withdrawal symptoms

unpleasant physical or psychological effects following discontinued use of a drug, can include shakes or tremors, vomiting, blood pressure/heart rate changes

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