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the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
when a geographical barrier physically isolates populations and blockes gene flow
ex: antelope squirrel on south of grand canyon are different species as those on the north side
structures that are not the same in form but are used for the same purpose ex: bird wing and fly wing
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding
bottle neck effect
natural disaster eliminates most of the population- members left contribute the alleles for the new pop.
Part of Horiz. Spp Concept, plugs into population genetics framework. Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated. If individuals interbreed, allele frequencies stay similar within population. If no interbreeding, alleles between populations vary. Can Explain similarities within species. Concerned with isolating mechanisms like Pre/Post-zygotic barriers. Probs with BSC is concerning asexual organisms like bacteria, fossils and poorly known species where interbreeding cannot be tested, also incomplete isolation in ring spp or hybrid zones.
a system of biological taxonomy based on the quantitative analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms summarizing the (assumed) phylogenetic relations and evolutionary history of groups of organisms
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool isn't reflective of the source population
condition in which the frequency of alleles in a population remains the same over generations
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
hardy weinberg equilibrium
condition that occurs when the frequency of alleles in a particular gene pool remain constant over time
lamark vs darwin
Tendency toward perfection
Use and Disuse
Inherit acquired traits
said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis
pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
the process of measuring the absolute age of geologic material by measuring the concentrations of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
Separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
the two-part, scientifically recognized name given to an organism, consisting of its genus and species. for some reason it is written in a dead language
a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to obtain mates
two subpopulations become reproductively isolated within the same geographic area
practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
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