70 terms

History Final Cards


Terms in this set (...)

2 waves of immigration into the U.S.
• Old immigrants
- Came between 1820-1880
- Western Europe
• Irish, German, Scandinavians
- 15 million immigrants
• Establishment of Midwest and NYC as a result of Erie Canal
• Industrial textile production in New England
• Famine
New Immigrants
- Came during the Great Migration (1880-1920)
- Southern/Eastern Europe
• Italy, Russia, Balkan countries
- Roughly 25 million immigrants
• Urban industrialization
• Solidity of steel and coal production
• Poverty, political oppression
Ellis Island
Federal gov't opens Ellis Island in 1892
- Determine which immigrants would be allowed to enter
Immigrants need to demonstrate physical and mental health
- Ability to financially support themselves/not be ward of state
Lifestyle of Immigrants
Where/How they lived:
Immigrants congregated in mostly downtown areas of Manhattan
- Ethnic enclaves
Chinatown, Little Italy, Kleindeutchland
- Lower East Side
Tended to be ethnically diverse, or ethnically separated from block to block
Residential commercial areas tightly packed due to limited space

Where they worked:
Transitions from pre-industrial to industrial
Technology = Enterprise = Jobs
Urban industry and steel/coal production
Favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
- Concern amongst native-born Americans about the political, cultural and economic effects of mass immigratio
The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
- Banned any Chinese skilled or unskilled workers from entering the US
- Hindered attempts at Chinese attempts for Chinese citizenship
- Stifled (stopped) the growth of Chinese-American community
- Promoted first instances of large scale human smuggling
The Gentleman's Agreement
Informal agreement between the U.S. and the Empire of Japan
The U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.
Resulted from influx of Japanese children in California public schools
Immigration Act of 1903
Inadmissible classes: anarchists, epileptics, beggars, and importers of prostitutes
Immigration Act of 1907
Inadmissible classes: Those mentally/physically unfit for work, unaccompanied minors
Urban Pull Factors
Proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition
- Centralized: close to goods, services, jobs
- Variety of ethnic and socio economics
- More job opportunities
• Transitions from pre-industrial to industrial
• Technology: Enterprise= jobs
The Growth and Development of NYC as an urban center
Based on 2 instances:
- Influx of immigrants
- Technological developments
1898: Consolidation of 5 boroughs
- Manhattan/Bronx: urban centers
- BK/QNS/SI: rural outlaying areas
•1903: IRT (subway) opens
Geographic and Social Mobility of urban immigrants
Divide between up and downtown
- Uptown viewed as regal and wealthy
- Downtown viewed as poor and foreign
Modern Immigration
Labor Market Competition:
- The idea that Americans compete for jobs, immigrants take away jobs from Americans
Fiscal Burden Model:
- The idea that Americans resist immigration because they have to pay for the welfare of the immigrants
Arizona Law:
- A number of laws to protect illegal immigrants from entering into the U.S.
The Gilded Age- 1870 to 1890
Gilded: covered with a thin layer of gold
- What does this suggest about the time period?
(When you look at it, it is nice, but under the gold, there were MANY problems)
2 Major political concerns
- Industrialists and corporations were enriching themselves at the expense of the public
- Corruption in government
Bribery and/or voter fraud
The Progressive Movement
•Reforming the spoils system
-President Chester A. Arthur signs the Pendleton Act
-Created the Civil Service Commission
-Fill civil service jobs on basis of merit
-Civil Service: govt jobs, not including elected positions
•Primary: Elections whereby voters select their party's candidate
•Recall: Process by which publc can remove an elected official
•Initiative: Allows voters to put a bill b4 state legislature
Political Corruption
Political bosses running local government
- Financial contributions to political campaigns
- Awarding job bids to friends and beneficiaries
• INDUSTRIES: Sewage, garbage, collection, police, firefighters
- Large corporations/consolidated corporations
• Impose monopolistic prices to cheat the consumer and squash independent companies
• 1904: 318 trusts controlled about 2/5th of the nations manufacturing outputs
2. Labor Unions
TR: First president to side with striking workers
- Anthracite Coal Strike 1902
• Threatened to used US military to seize and operate mines
United States Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
- Cabinet level position that dealt directly with labor management issues
3. Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
This book made an account of horrors in the Chicago meat-packing industry and spurred Pure Food and Drug Laws
16th and 17th Amendments
• 16:
- Gave congress the power to collect income tax (1913)
- Graduated Income Tax is the method of taxation that taxes people a different rates depending on income
• 17:
- Public directly elects senators
Theodore Roosevelt
1881: elected to NY State Assembly
- Younger member EVER
1888: appointed to the Civil Service Commission (prevent spoils system)
- Root out beneficiaries of the spoils system
•1895: president of the NYC Police Commissioners
- Reformed notoriously corrupt police division
•1897: Assistant Secretary of the Navy
McKinley re-elected as President in 1900
- Backed by banks and big business
McKinley shot by unemployed anarchist in 1901
- T.R. assumes presidency at age of 42
Considered himself a Progressive
- Small, uninvolved federal gov't would not suffice in the new industrial era
- Emphasis more on the needs of average citizenry than big business
- Heavily invested in the conservation movement
Domestic Policy
• The Square Deal
Regulation of trusts
- Support for organized labor
2. Pure Food and Drug Laws (precursor of FDA)
3. Conservationism

1. Military Career ????

2. The Square Deal
Aimed a helping middle class citizens
Involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts
- Rule by wealthy; power from wealth
Protect business from extreme demands of organized labor

3. Trust-‐busting
Differentiated between GOOD trust and BAD trusts
- BAD: take advantages of workers and eliminate competition
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
- oppose the combination of entities that could potentially harm competition, such as monopolies or trusts
- Used by TR to break up bad trusts

4. Organized labor union
First president to side with striking workers
- Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
• Threatened to use US military to seize and operate mines
US Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
- Cabinet level position that dealt directly with labor and management issues

5. FDA-‐ Food and Drug Administration
Spurred on by fictional account of Chicago meat-packing industry
- Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Gov't agents monitor quality of processed meats
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
- Required list of ingredients on food and drug products

6. Conservation
Conservation: political movement that seeks to protect natural resources
TR believed that most efficient way to use/conserve natural resources would be through federal gov't control
- Backed "wise use" politics
- Created 5 national parks
- Supported the establishment of the US Forest Service
Foreign Affairs
"Speaks softly and carry a big stick" -TR
- Believed in importance of using American power in shaping global affairs
World view
- Split between "civilized" and "uncivilized"
- American responsibility to intervene in the affairs of the latter to preserve stability
• Includes violence
Executive branch is supreme in foreign policy

1. Latin America Situation
Concern to US financial interests in Latin America
- Debts to Europe were provoking European intervention
Why should the US bother?
- Exports to Latin America jumped from $50 million to $120 million in 1901

2. The Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine
Warning to Latin American countries to stabilize politics and finances
- "Chronic wrongdoing [might require] intervention by some civilized nation"
- Referred to the US as "an international police power"

3. Panama Canal
-Waterway through panama, province of Columbia
-Connect the Atlantic and pacific oceans
-Promote business, diplomacy, military expeditions
-MUST be controlled by the United States
-Problem: Clayton bulwer treaty with Britain called for joint control of a canal
-Solution: hay-pauncefote treaty singed to permit solely US run canal
Temperance: social movement urging reduced use of alcoholic beverages
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
- Made temperance attractive to many reformers
Anti-Saloon League
- Founded in 1896, focused only on the legal prohibition of alcoholic beverages
- Developed modern lobbying techniques
- Printed and disseminated anti-drinking brochures
- Appealed to church members for support
- Lobbied both law makers and businessmen
Passed by congress in 1917
Ratified by 3/4 of the states in 1919
Prohibited making, selling,or transporting alcohol
Strengthened by Volstead Act (1919)
Power of the fed. gov't
Desire to destroy the political power of the German-based brewing industry
The need to reduce domestic violence in the home and crime
Number of crimes up 24%
Theft and burglaries up 9%
Homicide up 12.7%
Assaults and battery up 13%
Drug addiction up 44.6%
Police dept. cost up 11.4%
REPEAL! (1933)
Prohibition ends at last
The Economy of the 1920's
Industrial economic rebound (1922-1928)
- 70% increase
Readily available technology
- Multiple brands of similar products
- Competition=low prices
Installment buying
- Buying on credit, pay back money
Chained stores and mail-order

Loose networks of economic transactions based on the trading of company stocks (shares) at an agreed price
- Private investors, companies, institutional ivenstors

High debt and contracting market hurt agricultural productivity
- Europeans couldn't afford surplus US crops after WWI
- Farmers= 1/5 of the US population
Decline in skilled labor opportunities
- Unskilled labor for assembly line work
- Received low pay
Competition among European nations
- Acquisition of new resource
- Opening of new markets or commerce
- Colonization
Rapidly industrializing Germany
- Seeking to compete with British Empire
Fluctuating balance of power
- Creation and/or maintenance of an UNEQUAL economic, cultural, and territorial relationships between states in the form of an empire
- Leads to militarism: glorification of military buildup
- Pride in one's nation or ethnic group
An agreement between nations that ensures mutual cooperation, support and defense
How could an alliance system exacerbate a conflict between 2 individual nations to eventually include many other countries?
Central Powers Allied (Entente) Powers
- Germany - France
- Austria - Germany
- Italy - Russia
Part of the spark that ignited the war
- Austria seized the Ottoman province of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. Russia became angry, and so did it's ally, Serbia. As revenge, the Russians and Serbians killed the her to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Violations of Neutral Rights
British interfere with US selling of non-contraband goods to German
- American commerce with Germany declines
- Continued commerce with Britain's and other Allied (Entente) countries
Germany's technological advantages
- U-Boat (submarine)
- Declared war zone around the British Isle
International Law
- Attacker had to warm passenger/merchant ship before striking
- Supported by US
German perspective
- Application of law renders U-Boats ineffective
- US was acting as part of the Allied powers

2. The Entry
Dependent on three variables
- Direct provocation
- Keeping the war in Europe
- Only allying with democratic nations
3. Lusitania
May 7, 1915
- German U-Boat sank British passenger liner near Ireland
- 1,200 dead- 128 Americans
- Germans accused ship of carrying ammo

4. US Enters the War
On April 2, 1917, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to approve entry into WWI against Central Powers
Congress overwhelmingly approves
The Big Four
David Lloyd George-Britain
Vittorio Orlando-Italy
George Clemenceau-France
Woodrow Wilson-U.S.
Treaty of Versailles
Placed full blame of war on Germany
Wilson agrees to treaty to help realisation of his fourteen points
Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to pay reparations of £6.6 million
German armed forces
Reduce army to 100,000
No tanks
No Air Force
Demilitarization of the Rhineland
Allies were to occupy the West Bank of the Rhine for 15 years
Navy was not allowed to use submarine or large battleships
The United States Post WWI
The USA emerged as a world power for the first time
Americans rejected any major role on world affairs
Americans turned focus to problems at home
WWI was followed by economic recession
-Slowing down of economic activity
•Transition from wartime to peace time economically
•Military supply factories shut down
-Large scale unemployment
•Returning soldiers had difficulty finding work
•No strike pledge by unions lifted
-1919: 1/5 of the labour force went of strike
Wilson very unpopular at home: voted out of power (1920)
•Bad economy
•Americans did not like treaty of Versailles
Warren Harding (republican) elected president
Secretary of the treasury during Harding and Coolidge
Proposed the Mellon Plan
-General reduction of income takes
-Top income brackets would have their tax rates lowered from fifty percent of 25%
-Lowest income group would have their lowered from 4% to 3%
The Stock Market Crash
Stock prices double between May of 1928-1929
Bull market
October 23rd-6 million shares bought and sold
Causes instability in the market-prices drop: net loss of $4 billion
Lenders began recalling loans
Investors can't pay--sell stocks--more price drop
The Great Depression
The supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand
Constriction of auto and home markets
Those who could afford had already purchased
1926 to 1929: construction spending net loss is two billion
1929: car sales drop by one third
Rural: farmers unable to repay loans
Forced sale of farms
Urban: high risk investment
Invested in stock market
Loaned huge amounts to speculators
Both: banks inability to collect--banks going out of business
-1933: 25%
-13 million without jobs
-34 million people belonged to families without primary wage earner
-1932: family incomes drop by 40%
-273, 000 families evicted from their homes
-60% of Americans classified as poor in 1933
-Part one 1993
Banking reform
-Part two 1935
Labour reform
Social security
The Dustbowl
Period of severe dust storms
Major drought
Overproduction of grasslands
Improper farming techniques
Migrant farm worker class
Loss of property
Nazi-Soviet Pact
August 1939: Hitler and Stalin sign
-Promise not to attack each other
Neutrality Act
Forbade selling arms, making loans, or giving assistance to nations involved in war
Battle of Britain
Massive destruction to British cities and infrastructure
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
Lend weapons and supplies rather than sell them to allies
Enable Britain to win, keep US out of direct conflict
Troops dispatched to Greenland and Iceland, navy patrols throughout the Atlantic
Operation Barbarossa
Hitler breaks his non-aggression pact with Soviet Union
Invades Soviet Union in 1941
Germany now fighting war on two fronts
US extends benefits of Lend-Lease to Soviets
Battle of Stalingrad
Soviets defeat nazis at the battle of Stalingrad
Soviets aided by extreme winter
Sino-Japanese War (1937)
Japanese forces seize Beijing and other coastal cities
Shanghai brutally bombed
Roosevelt authorizes the sale of arms to the Chinese
Manchurian Crisis
-Area of china roughly the size of Texas
-Rich in coal, iron, timber, and food
-Seized by Japanese military in 1931
-Served as buffer zone against the Soviet Union
Pearl Harbour
December seventh nineteen forty one: 6 Japanese carriers bearing 350 aircraft launch surprise attack
Destroy and damage naval installation in Hawaii
2, 403 dead, 1, 178 wounded
Simultaneous assault of Malaya, Hong Kong, Guam, Philippines, and Midway
Prompts US entry into WWII
The Invasion of Normandy
Massive aerial and amphibious invasion of France by the Allies in 1944
Simultaneous attack in five separate beaches
-Ground troops arriving via boat
-Supported by paratroopers landing behind nazi lines
-Navy ships bombard nazi positions
Goal was to link all five beaches and advance through France
The Holocaust
The systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of the Jewish people by the Nazi regime and its collaborations
-Planned out in steps and stages toward a "final solution"
-Funded by the government: paid for the construction of the camps, for the trains to get the Jews to the camps, the soldiers, and disposal of the bodies
-Not all of the people were Jewish but the numbers do say that Jews were the primary target
Jews, deemed inferior, were an alien threat to hitler's concept of a pure aryan race
Portrayed as responsible for Germans social and economic problems
-Slavic people
-Persons of colour
-Soviet prisoners of war
-Jehovah's Witnesses
-Mentally ill
-Political left
Refers to the extermination of Jews as a race
-Implemented in stages
-State-sponsored propaganda-->anti Jewish legislation
-Ghetto segregation
-Business boycotts
Concentration camps
-Labour camps used for production of German military supplies
-High death rate
-Worked to death
-Horrible conditions
-Death camps
-Places with the express purpose of killing people en masse

Jews: 5.9 million
Soviet prisoners of war: 2-3 million
Ethnic poles: 1.8-2 million
Others: less than a million
Total: 10-12 million people dead
The Cuban Missile Crisis
1959: Fidel Castro (communist) seizes power in Cuba
1961: Bay of Pigs
Failed invasion of Cuba by the US
1962: US intelligence shows signs of Soviet missile base construction in Cuba
Launch missile attacks on the US
President Kennedy imposes naval blockade
"Threat to world peace."
Soviets deploy missile carrying boats towards Cuba
Period on the United States known as the Second Red Scare
Late 1940s to 1950s
Heightened fears of comminist influence on American institutions
Espionage by Soviet agents
1961: Bay of Pigs
Failed invasion of Cuba by the US
Civil Rights Movement
Little Rock School district integration blocked by government orval faubus and state's national guard
President Eisenhower send in federal troops to enforce desegregation
"Little Rock 9" allowed to enter high school
Rosa Parks
African American bus rider
Refused to give up her African American designated seat for a white passenger
African American riders made up 70% of bus passengers in Montgomery
African Americans boycotted bus company
Refused to use
Originally planned for one day
Urged by Martin Luther King to extend boycott
Lasts 381 days
Supreme Court rules bus segregation unconstitutional
Argument: segregation makes equal educational opportunities impossible
In the field of public education, the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place
All public school federally ordered to desegregate
Suburbanization and Levittowns
Suburbs: refers to a residential area existing as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city
Why the suburbs?
Escape urban noise and crowding
Move from rural areas for proximity to city jobs and markets
Move away from African-Americans (White Flight)
Desire for political influence and better education opportunities
Wanting to own a home
Suburban developers converted fields and pastures to residential areas
William Levitt
Adopted assembly line techniques to home-building
Built 180 houses per week
4 room dwellings with identical floor plans
Sold for $7, 990
Environmentally aware
Politically active
Yippie movement
Socially nonconformist
Unhappy with materialism of "American Dream" →Acquisition of tangible things
Kent State Shootings
Ohio National Guard opens fire on unarmed protesters
Nixon's planned invasion of Cambodia
4 killed/9 wounded
Hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students
Further alienated the youth from the "establishment"
The Vietnam Conflict
What were the reasons behind military intervention i Vietnam, and how was America affected?
Cold War-era military conflict
U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965
Presidents Johnson and Nixon
Fought on territories of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Based around American policy of containment
Preventing the spread of communism
Prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese
Domino theory: if one country falls to communism, the neighbouring countries will also fall
French granted colonial control following WWII
Vietnamese rebel against French colonizers
Chinese communists infiltrate North Vietnam in 1949
US and USSR begin sending aid and weapons
Communist North Vietnam
Vietnamese People's Army
Viet Cong>>V.C. (guerrilla fighters)
Democratic South Vietnam
South Vietnam Army
US Army Forces
USS Maddox attacked by North Vietnamese boats in Gulf of Tonkin
2005 declassified report disproves any attack
Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by communist aggression
War with no fronts or defined geographic objectives
America engages in search and destroy tactics
Point of war is to kill as many North Vietnamese as possible
Utilize superior manpower and firepower (air strikes)
Knowledge of the terrain
Intricate system of tunnels
Guerrilla warfare tactics
Used civilian population
US diplomatically not allowed to engage in those countries with ground forces
The Election of Nixon
Nixon defeats Humphrey
Easily wins electoral vote: Wins popular vote by less that 1% margin
Promises to restore law and order and begin "peace with honour" process in Vietnam
Young generation angered by choice of candidates and results
More of the same politics and policies
Republican operatives break into Democratic headquarters
Nixon approved cover-up
June 1974: House begins impeachment proceedings
August 1974: Nixon resigns presidency
Gerald Ford
38th President
End of Vietnam conflict
Helsinki Accords
35 nations signed declaration to aid in détente
Economic Problems
General slowdown of economic activity
Pardons Richard Nixon
Jimmy Carter
39th President
Little Congressional support
The Iran Hostage Crisis
Oil discovered in Iran in 1908
British have dominant influence in region until post-WWII
US advocates for independent Iran (1953)
Supports King Reza Shah Pahlavi
CIA directs operation to oust opposition and install Shah as leader
Coup against democratically elected Iranian government
Fear that Iran develop close ties to USSR
Wealth generated from oil trade
Protection via US military equipment
Iranian people becoming upset
Western influence (corrupting)
Uneven distribution of wealth
Shah using secret police to crack down dissent
First attempt at Islamic Revolution put down in 1963
Islamic clergy leader Ayatollah Khomeini exiled to Iraq
1976: Protests break out in city of Qom
Accuse Shah's regime of being anti-Islamic
1979: Shah flees to Egypt
Khomeini returns to power
Shah diagnosed with cancer --> seeks treatment in th eUS
Iranian student activists seize US embassy and take employees hostage
Khomeini demands return of Shah for trial and repayment of of billions of dollars that he claims Shah stole from Iran
Carter's initial response : oil embargo
Over 60 Americans taken hostage
Khomeini releases most female and African American hostages
Already suffered the "oppression of American society"
Crisis lasts 444 days
US froze all Iranian assets
Carter green-lights failed military extraction (Operation Eagle Claw)
Iran engaged in war with Iraq
Need money
US agrees to unfreeze several billion in Iranian assets
Prompts releasee of hostages
Returned to US January 20, 1981

Reagan's Take on Economy
Problems caused by government intrusion on "free market" system
Government regulation
Handouts to nonproductive citizens
High taxes
Deficit spending
Spending exceeds income
Reaganomics : The Basics
Eliminate government economic regulations and control
Slash spending on social programmes
Education, Healthcare, Social Security, Food Assistance
Limit government use of tax as means of income redistribution
Balance budget through reduction of federal government
What Reagan believed:
Trickle-Down Theory: the idea that tax breaks or other economic benefits provided by government to businesses and the wealthy will benefit poorer members of society by improving the economy as a whole
Did it work?
Federal budget deficit: $59 billion in 1980 > $100 billion in 1982 > $300 billion by 1992
1983: Unemployment rate reaches 10%
The Iran Contra Affair
US openly supports anticommunist regimes
Effort to topple Soviet or Soviet-backed governments
Ex: Soviet/Afghan War--Grenada--El Salvador
1979: Insurgents (Sandinistas) overthrew Anastasio Somoza
Central American dictator / friendly to US
Sandinistas claim US imperialistic in region
Sandinistas aid uprising in El Salvador, buy Soviet weapons, invite Cubans to work on public sector jobs
Reagan claims Nicaragua becoming Soviet satellite nation
1981: CIA begins training 10, 000 counterrevolutionaries (contras) to overthrow Nicaraguan government
1984: Congress votes to stop US military aid to contras
Reagan uses intermediary countries to continue to funnel resources to contras
Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Panama
US condemns Iran as terrorist nation
Urges international community to restrict trade with Iran
Openly supports Iraq during the Iraq-Iran War (1980-89)
Growing Iranian influence in the Middle East
Soviet influence as ally to Iran
US illigally sold weapons to Iran in 1986 in hopes of winning release of several US hostages
John Poindexter (National Security Advisor)
Oliver North (Lieutenant Colonel / National Security Counsel)
WIlliam Casey (Director of CIA)
Money earned from illegal arms sale went to support the contras
Also illegal
North admitted illegally destroying government docs
Bush's Economic Woes
Slow or no economic growth during Bush's term
Over 30 states in financial trouble
Business debt ran high
Factory employment at lowest rate since 1982
1991: Median household incomes hit most severe decline since 1973
1992: Highest level of poor population since 1964
Bill Clinton
Wins 1992 presidential election
Sweeps New England West Coast, much of Midwest
Made inroads into southern states usually won by Republicans
"New Democrat"
Focus on private sector development by federal government rather than government funded social welfare
Job training and education to promote opportunity, not dependency
Republicans moved to Clinton to defend campaign promise of ending bad on gays in military
Not enough time to secure congressional military support
Settles on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy
Attempted accessible and affordable healthcare
Continually blocked by insurance companies and financial community
Lobbying: The act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in the government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies
Developed by House Republicans under leadership of Newt Gingrich
Called for balanced budget amendment, two-year limits on welfare, increased defensed spending
Public disagreed with cutting social services like education, veterans' benefits, infrastructure
Blamed Republicans for inability to draft a timely budget
Economic growth for 116 consecutive months
Average rate of 4%
Median family income raised by $6,338
Unemployment rate of 5%
Inflation dropped to its lowest rate since the Kennedy Administration
The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion
Third consecutive surplus and largest ever
The Attack
September 11, 2011
Hijackers flew planes into strategic targets
World Trade Centre
Fourth Plane downed in Pennsylvania
Hijackers mostly of Saudi Arabian decent
Reasons for the Attack
The presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia
US support of Israel
Sanction against Iraq
Governed by the Taliban
Sponsered by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Bin Laden
Hard line Islamic Fundamentalists
Guilty of human rights violations
During the late 1990's allowed Al Qaeda to run training camps
Maintained positive relationship with US government
Military action begins on October 7, 2001
Bush's Demands
Close terrorist camps
Surrender Al Qaeda leaders
Return foreign nationals
US declares victory December 7th
Removal of Taliban creates civil war between warlords
US troops still stationed in Afghanistan
Invasion of Iraq
Threat of Iraqi nuclear proliferation
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Part of Bush's "War on Terror"
Administration suggests link between 9//11 and Iraq
Liberate Iraqi people
UN weapons inspectors repot that Iraq has no WMD's
Iraq releases 11//000 page report detailing lack of weapons program
Bush administration comments on lack of WMD's in 2//000
No evidence to tie Hussein to terrorist organizations
Secular regime v. Islamic Fundamental
Back up by Director of CIA
Attacking Iraq destabilizes the region
Elections whereby voters select their party's candidate
Indirect Initiative
Allows voters to put a bill b4 state legislature
Process by which publc can remove an elected official
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Slowing down of economic activity
The inflation rate is high and the economic growth rate slows down and unemployment remains steadily high
a general and progressive increase in prices