History Final Cards

Terms in this set (70)

• The Square Deal
Regulation of trusts
- Support for organized labor
2. Pure Food and Drug Laws (precursor of FDA)
3. Conservationism

1. Military Career ????

2. The Square Deal
Aimed a helping middle class citizens
Involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts
- Rule by wealthy; power from wealth
Protect business from extreme demands of organized labor

3. Trust-‐busting
Differentiated between GOOD trust and BAD trusts
- BAD: take advantages of workers and eliminate competition
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
- oppose the combination of entities that could potentially harm competition, such as monopolies or trusts
- Used by TR to break up bad trusts

4. Organized labor union
First president to side with striking workers
- Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
• Threatened to use US military to seize and operate mines
US Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
- Cabinet level position that dealt directly with labor and management issues

5. FDA-‐ Food and Drug Administration
Spurred on by fictional account of Chicago meat-packing industry
- Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Gov't agents monitor quality of processed meats
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
- Required list of ingredients on food and drug products

6. Conservation
Conservation: political movement that seeks to protect natural resources
TR believed that most efficient way to use/conserve natural resources would be through federal gov't control
- Backed "wise use" politics
- Created 5 national parks
- Supported the establishment of the US Forest Service
What were the reasons behind military intervention i Vietnam, and how was America affected?
THE BASICS
Cold War-era military conflict
1955-1975
U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965
Presidents Johnson and Nixon
Fought on territories of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
PURPOSE
Based around American policy of containment
Preventing the spread of communism
Prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese
Domino theory: if one country falls to communism, the neighbouring countries will also fall
BACKGROUND
French granted colonial control following WWII
Vietnamese rebel against French colonizers
Chinese communists infiltrate North Vietnam in 1949
US and USSR begin sending aid and weapons
SIDES AND PARTICIPANTS
Communist North Vietnam
Vietnamese People's Army
Viet Cong>>V.C. (guerrilla fighters)
Democratic South Vietnam
South Vietnam Army
US Army Forces
AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT
USS Maddox attacked by North Vietnamese boats in Gulf of Tonkin
2005 declassified report disproves any attack
Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by communist aggression
AMERICAN STRATEGY
War with no fronts or defined geographic objectives
America engages in search and destroy tactics
Point of war is to kill as many North Vietnamese as possible
Utilize superior manpower and firepower (air strikes)
NVA AND VIET KONG
Knowledge of the terrain
Intricate system of tunnels
Guerrilla warfare tactics
Used civilian population
UTILIZE CAMBODIA AND LAOS
US diplomatically not allowed to engage in those countries with ground forces
BACKGROUND
Oil discovered in Iran in 1908
British have dominant influence in region until post-WWII
US advocates for independent Iran (1953)
Supports King Reza Shah Pahlavi
CIA directs operation to oust opposition and install Shah as leader
Coup against democratically elected Iranian government
Fear that Iran develop close ties to USSR
IRAN UNDER THE SHAH
Wealth generated from oil trade
Protection via US military equipment
Iranian people becoming upset
Western influence (corrupting)
Uneven distribution of wealth
Shah using secret police to crack down dissent
First attempt at Islamic Revolution put down in 1963
Islamic clergy leader Ayatollah Khomeini exiled to Iraq
THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION
1976: Protests break out in city of Qom
Accuse Shah's regime of being anti-Islamic
1979: Shah flees to Egypt
Khomeini returns to power
Shah diagnosed with cancer --> seeks treatment in th eUS
Iranian student activists seize US embassy and take employees hostage
Khomeini demands return of Shah for trial and repayment of of billions of dollars that he claims Shah stole from Iran
Carter's initial response : oil embargo
THE HOSTAGE SITUATION
Over 60 Americans taken hostage
Khomeini releases most female and African American hostages
Already suffered the "oppression of American society"
Crisis lasts 444 days
US froze all Iranian assets
Carter green-lights failed military extraction (Operation Eagle Claw)
RELEASE
Iran engaged in war with Iraq
Need money
US agrees to unfreeze several billion in Iranian assets
Prompts releasee of hostages
Returned to US January 20, 1981

Reagan's Take on Economy
Problems caused by government intrusion on "free market" system
Government regulation
Handouts to nonproductive citizens
High taxes
Deficit spending
Spending exceeds income
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