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Chapter 12: Building a PC
Terms in this set (84)
Most difficult part of buying a PC is picking which parts you want.
Read the reviews, read the fine print, compare and contrast, put it in your hand.
a standard THICK CLIENT runs a modern operating system and general productivity applications to accomplish most tasks.
The "thick" refers to what the computer can do. With thick clients, you can readily add all sorts of capabilities just by installing new software.
Thick Client. Thick clients, also called heavy clients, are full-featured computers that are connected to a network. Unlike thin clients, which lack hard drives and other features, thick clients are functional whether they are connected to a network or not.
A fat client (also called heavy, rich or thick client) is a computer (client) in client-server architecture or networks that typically provides rich functionality independent of the central server.
EXAM TIP: A standard thick client should meet or exceed the recommended hardware specifications for Windows and offer typical desktop applications, such as office productivity and network applications (like a web browser and e-mail client)
Component Hardware Requirements
CPU 1 G GHz
Memory 1 GB RAM at least
Hard Drive 16 GB available hard drive
Graphics DirectX 9 graphics
Network internet access
A thin client is a lightweight computer that is purpose-built for remoting into a server (typically cloud or desktop virtualization environments). It depends heavily on another computer (its server) to fulfill its computational roles.
thin clients run an operating system locally and carry flash memory rather than a hard disk. Since it has no hard drive or local storage, all applications and data are stored on a central server, but advanced thin client technologies help users still experience the same look and feel as on a PC.
Thick vs. Thin - A Quick Comparison
- Easy to deploy as they require no extra or specialized software installation
- Needs to validate with the server after data capture
- If the server goes down, data collection is halted as the client needs constant communication with the server
- Cannot be interfaced with other equipment (in plants or factory settings for example)
- Clients run only and exactly as specified by the server
- More downtime
-Portability in that all applications are on the server so any workstation can access
- Opportunity to use older, outdated PCs as clients
- Reduced security threat
Thin Clients have just enough hardware and power to run the selected OS and a few basic applications. thin client is a system designed to outsource much or its work.
Thin client rely on resources from powerful servers so they may not have hard drives to store data. Cheaper and easier to deploy than THICK client. Relies on network connectivity and access to servers over those network.
a powerful technology that enables you to run more than one operating system at the same time on a single computer. With virtualized servers, you can consolidate multiple, power-hungry machines into one box.
VIRTUALIZED WORKSTATIONS, virtualization is often used to run a second OS within the OS installed on the computer's hard drive
Needs lots and lots of RAM. A powerful 64-bit CPU with many cores.
EXAM TIP: You'll need lots of RAM - think MAX RAM - and a fast CPU with many cores to get great performance out of a virtualization workstation
Virtualization is the creation of a virtual -- rather than actual -- version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device or network resources.
In computing, virtualization means to create a virtual version of a device or resource, such as a server, storage device, network or even an operating system where the framework divides the resource into one or more execution environments.
Need a powerful computer for making and editing movies.
designed for photographers and graphic designers who work with hefty files. Its core must be very powerful. Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) categories. These enable engineers to create and build components in an industrial setting.
On a graphic workstation you need a high quality monitor.
Audio Editing Workstations
You need a fast, multicore CPU, gobs of RAM, and a larger monitor. Need a large, fast hard drive. High quality audio interface.
An AUDIO INTERFACE is a box you hook up to a PC with inputs that enable you to connect professional mics and instruments. High specialized input devices (like high end sound card) is called CONTROL SURFACES mimic the look and feel of older, analog mixing consoles. They have a large number of programmable inputs that make controlling the software faster and more accurate than with a mouse and keyboard.
Video Editing Workstations
combine the requirements of a graphic workstation and an audio editing workstation. Video editors often use two or more color-calibrated monitors so they can view the video stream they're working on with one monitor and see their video editor open on the other.
Video editing workstations require powerful CPU with tons of RAM, more than audio even. High speed, high capacity drives are important. Many video editing workstations have multiple hard drives set up in a RAID array for added storage capacity and enhanced read/write speed.
Video editing workstations like CAD/CAM workstations have a high-level professional graphics card.
EXAM TIP: exam combines audio and video editing workstations into a single thing: they often do double-duty and keep in mind for the exam, you will find dedicated audio workstations and dedicated video editing workstations as well as the combined units.
Specializing Consumer PCs
three common types of home systems are home servers that store everything from your music collection, income taxes, PCs to play music and movies and gaming PCs to play powerful video games.
Building a PC Server at home
as more and more computing devices move into the home environment, there;s a need for centralized storage space, a HOME SERVER PC to dish out files and folders on demand, a place for all your media to stream to multiple devices. This home server has specialized needs that take it beyond the typical thick client.
A home server is a computing server located in a private residence providing services to other devices inside or outside the household through a home network or the Internet. Such services may include file and printer serving, media center serving, web serving (on the network or Internet), web caching, account authentication and backup services. Because of the relatively low number of computers on a typical home network, a home server commonly does not require significant computing power and can be implemented with a re-purposed, older computer, or a plug computer. An uninterruptible power supply is sometimes used in case of power outages that can possibly corrupt data.
A HOME SERVER PC supplies three discrete functions: media streaming, file sharing, and print sharing.
To turn a PC into a printer server, open Device and Printers applet in the Control Panel, right-click on an installed printer, choose Printer properties, and then check the Share this printer checkbox on the Sharing tab.
To turn a Windows PC into a media streaming server, select that option in Control Panel. Open the Network and Sharing Center, select the Change advanced settings link from the left Task menu and then click the Home or Work option to get to the Advanced sharing settings screen.
Both Windows Media Player and iTunes have a feature to share media media files on a local network. iTunes shared via the Bonjour protocol
EXAM TIP: You don't need to care at all about the video card in a home server PC. Anything will do because you're not going to run anything visual directly on the server.
hardware needs a home server PC apply primarily to the network speed and hard drive redundancy, at least according to COMPTIA. Pay attention to the amount of RAM and speed of CPU.
For the network, a wired Gigabit Ethernet NIC should be a standard issue. Limit wireless use to the single connection between the wireless access point and the client. The home server should connect via Ethernet to minimize any lag or dropped frames.
A file server's hard drives do the heavy and sustained lifting for the PC, so you should not stint on them. At a min, get two drives of identical size that have as much capacity as you can afford.
You need fault tolerance on the data, you simply must use a RAID 1 configuration at a min. If you can afford it and your motherboard supports it, get four identical drives and run in RAID 10.
Windows 8/8.1/10 offer STORAGE SPACES and storage pools where you can toss in any number of drives and create an array. If you do this, like putting three 4-TB drives into a pool and creating a single STORAGE SPACE, you are creating an excellent RAID 5 array.
Storage Spaces Overview. This topic discusses Storage Spaces, a technology in Windows and Windows Server that enables you to virtualize storage by grouping industry-standard disks into storage pools, and then creating virtual disks called storage spaces from the available capacity in the storage pools.
A group of physical disks is called a pool, and on top of that pool you can create one or more storage spaces. ... To prevent this, Storage Spaces offers several resiliency options to keep your files duplicated across all of the drives in the pool so disk failure won't result in data loss
Storage Spaces are technically virtual drives that appear in File Explorer as normal local storage, and each storage space you create can be less, equal, or greater to the amount of the physical capacity available in the storage pool.
Setting up a Home Theater PC
enables you to play music and watch movies and television. An optimal home theater has five components:
1. A monitor, television or projector
2. Surround sound speakers
3. A stereo receiver
4. A home theater PC
5. Network connectivity (such as a cable box or ethernet)
Output Killer Video
a home theater PC must provide support for large monitors at high resolution a requirements usually involves an HDMI connector on the video card. The HDMI cable connects the home theater box to the stereo receiver, which then pushes the signal to the television.
Play It Loudly
must have surround sound and a thumping subwoofer so you need a sound card or built-in sound processor that supports 5.1 or 7.1 stereo.
For the best output, the sound card connects to the stereo receiver via S/PDIF through either the optical connector or coaxial connector. The speakers then connect to the receiver.
HDMI carries both the video signal and the surround sound audio signal, so if you plug it into the television directly from the PC, the rig will use the television's speakers by default. If you have the surround sound speakers plugged into the computer rather than a reciever, you need to go into the Sound applet in Control Panel to select the playback device you prefer.
Get a nice stacking system for your home theater system
Access the Media - Streaming and TV
need access usually through Gigabit Ethernet to get streaming media from the home server PC. The only time the home theater PC should receive a television signal directly is through broadcast over the air. For this signal, the PC needs a TV tuner.
MS dropped support for both DVD playback and Windows Media Center in Windows 10. If you want to use a Windows 10 machine for a home theater system, you;ll need to use Kodi or Plex.
Kodi enables you to customize the look and feel fo the interface.
Home theater PC. TV Tuner, remote control, HT quality audio and video output, quieter cooling system
max sound and output audio to a receiver
Essential features for a Gaming PC
1. fast, multicore processor
2. lots of memory, at least 8 GB, 16 GB for good measure and 64 GB if you plan on playing several games at once.
3. High end video card with a specialized graphics processor unit (GPU) for gaming
4. High def sound card to provide optimal positional audio
Will need some high end cooling like Water Cooling Rig.
INSTALLING AND UPGRADING WINDOWS
INSTALLING AND UPGRADING WINDOWS
Windows installation has two steps: First, boot the system from the OS installation media. Second, answer the wizard's initial queries and let it rip. 10-40 minute process.
EXAM TIP: Successful installation results in a properly formatted boot drive with the correct partitions/formats
Windows has several boot methods. Most common is to insert Windows DVD, change the boot order in the System Setup Utility (CMOS) and power up the system. Current sytems make this even easier. Most of a hot key you press just after systems powers on to enable you to select the prefer boot device. No need to mess with System Setup Utility.
You can boot to any number of other removable drivers that plug into USB, FireWire, eSATA, or Thunderbolt ports. That includes flash-media drives, external hard drives, or external solid-state drives. Any number of EXTERNAL/HOT-SWAPPABLE DRIVES will do the job.
Hot plug is the addition of a component to a running computer system without significant interruption to the operation of the system.
Hot-swappable is the capability of being able to disconnect and connect devices while the computer or another device is on and have those devices be detected without having to reboot the computer or device. For example, eSATA, FireWire, and USB are examples of interfaces that are hot-swappable on computers.
MS has shifted with the times. The primary way to install Windows 10 is downloading an ISO image and writing that image to some bootable media. With the Windows Media Creation tool (a quick download from MS) you can easily make that bootable media a DVD or USB flash drive
Don't have an optical drive? You can access Windows installation files over a network. Many systems add a small, hidden partition to the primary hard drive containing an image of the factory-fresh version of Windows.
In the event of a corrupted or very messy instance of Windows, you can reboot, access this RECOVERY PARTITION and reinstall windows.
EXAM TIP: Exam objectives offer "internal hard drive (partition)" as a viable boot method for installing Windows. Best guess that they mean the hidden recovery partition.
EXAM TIP: mentions REFRESH/RESTORE as an appropriate method of installing Windows and in some scenarios are true. Both refresh and restore install some or all of an operating system as an attempt to fix an OS that's not functioning properly.
the new OS installs into the same folders as the old OS or on top of the old. The new OS replaces the old OS but retains data and applications and also inherits all of the personal settings (such as font styles, desktop themes) You don't have to reinstall your favorite programs.
MS has a compatibility tool called the WINDOWS UPGRADE ADVISOR for each version of Windows that enables you to scan your current hardware to see if it can handle upgrading to a new version of Windows. It;s also called the Upgrade Assistant in later versions)
involves OS installing it onto an empty hard drive or completely replacing an existing installation.
An upgrade installation means installing an OS on TOP of an earlier installed version.
You can combine versions of Windows by creating a MULTIBOOT INSTALLATION. Installing usually involves some sort of optical disc, but not always.
Many techs refer to the upgrade process as an IN-PLACE UPGRADE.
EXAM TIP: MS uses IN-PLACE UPGRADE to define an upgrade installation so you might see that on the exam. MS documentation also uses the term for a different process called REPAIR INSTALLATION.
To begin the upgrade of Windows, run the appropriate program from the optical disc. Insert a Windows installation disc into your system while the old OS is running, which autostarts the installation program.
The installation program will ask you whether you want to perform an upgrade or new installation; if you select new installation, the program will remove the existing OS before installing the new one.
Before starting an OS upgrade, make sure you have shut down all other open applications.
Dual-boot or multi-boot installation.
Windows allows you to shrink the C: partition so if you want to dual boot but have only a single drive, you can make it happen even if Windows is already installed and the C: partition takes up the full drive. Use Disk Management to shrink the volume and create another partition in the newly unallocated space. install another copy of Windows to the new paritition.
Multi-booting allows more than one operating system to reside on one computer, for example if you have a primary operating system and an alternate system that you use less frequently. Another reason for multi-booting can be to investigate or test a new operating system without switching completely. Multi-booting allows a new operating system to configure all applications needed, and migrate data before removing the old operating system, if desired. A possible alternative to multi-booting is virtualization, where a hypervisor is used to host one or more virtual machines running guest operating systems. Multi-booting is also useful in situations where different software applications require different operating systems. A multi-boot configuration allows a user to use all of this software on one computer. This is often accomplished by using a boot loader such as NTLDR, LILO, or GRUB which can boot more than one operating system. Multi-booting is also used by software developers when multiple operating systems are required for development or testing purposes. Having these systems on one machine is a way to reduce hardware costs.
You can multiboot Windows and Linux. The Linux installers add this multiboot capability by default. Just note that the reverse is not true. You need to install Windows first, then install Linux.
When configuring a computer for multibooting, there are two basic rules: First, you must format the system partition in a file system that is common to all installed operating systems; and second, you must install the operating systems in order from oldest to newest (or from Windows to other)
In medium to large orgs, more advanced installation methods are often employed when many computers need to be configured identically. A computer method is to place the source files in a shared directory on a network server. REMOTE NETWORK INSTALLATION. This is called an UNATTENDED INSTALLATION
What Is Remote Installation Services?
Updated: March 28, 2003
Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2
What Is Remote Installation Services?
In this section
Remote Installation Services Dependencies and Requirements
Remote Installation Services Limitations
Technologies Related to Remote Installation Services
Remote Installation Services (RIS) is an automated installation technology that you can use to create installation images of operating systems or of complete computer configurations, including desktop settings and applications. These installation images can then be made available to users at client computers. RIS is typically used during large-scale deployments when it would be too slow and costly to have administrators or end users interactively install the operating system on individual computers.
Compared to a standard interactive installation, RIS decreases installation time, eliminates the need to use CDs during installation, and minimizes end user and administrator interaction during installations. To accomplish this, RIS relies on Pre-Boot eXecution Environment (PXE) technology. PXE technology enables computers without an operating system to start up and connect remotely over a TCP/IP network connection to a RIS server, which then installs an operating system. The client computers must support remote booting with the PXE ROM, or they must be started with a remote-startup floppy disk and have a network adapter that is supported by that disk.
To perform a RIS installation, an administrator or end user typically boots a client computer from a PXE-capable network adapter by pressing F12 early in the startup process. This instructs the computer to acquire an IP address and connect to a RIS server. The client computer then downloads a small version of the Windows Setup program from the RIS server. You can configure a RIS installation so that the Windows Setup program interactively steps the administrator or end user through a shortened setup process, or you can configure it so that the entire setup process is automated after the end user or administrator presses F12. Also, you can configure a RIS installation so the installation is image-based or setup-based. By using image-based installations, you can deploy applications with an operating system. By using setup-based installations, you have more flexibility in terms of handling hardware differences among the computers in your organization.
an image is a complete copy of a hard drive volume on which an OS and any desired application software programs have been pre-installed.
Images can be stored on optical discs or USB drives, in which case the tech runs special software on the computer that copies the image onto the local hard drive. Images can also be stored on special network servers, in which case the tech connects to the image server by using special software that copies the image from the server to the local hard drive.
Norton Ghost is a leader in this field.
The Installation and Upgrade Process.
turn on the computer, insert OS dis in the drive and follow the installation wizard until everything is completed.
The currently installed OS must match the bit size of the upgrade OS. You can't upgrade 32 bit to 64 bit. Back everything up first before doing anything.
VISTA Upgrade to Win7
Home Basic Home Basic, Home Prem. Ult.
Home Prem. Home Prem., Ultimate
Business Prof Enterprise, Ultim.
From Win7 Upgrade to Win 8
Starter Win8, Win 8 Pro
Home Basic Win8, Win8 Pro
Home Prem Win8, Win8 Pro
Professional Win8 Pro, Win8 Enterprise
Enterprise Win8 Enterprise
Ultimate Win8 Pro
Upgrading from a previous version? I suggest you back up and do a clean install.
Windows Clean Installation Process
has a full graphical interface making it easy to partition drives and install an OS. Installation methods for Vista to present are practically identical.
It doesn't take long to install Windows. Each version gets snappier than predecessor, especially on an SSD.
You can install Windows over a network
All server-side issues should be handled by a network admin, setting up a server to deploy Windows installations and images - this goes beyond what is covered on the exam.
Boot with PXE on the client side
PXE (Preboot Execution Environment)
uses multiple protocols such as IP, DHCP and DNS to enable your computer to boot from a network location.
To enable PXE, enter BIOS setup. find screen that configs your NIC (which changes depending on your particular BIOS). If there is a PXE setting there, enable it. You will also need to change the boot order sothat the PC bootgs from a network location first.
Not every NIC supports PXE. To boot from a network location without PXE, you can create boot media that forces your PC to boot from a network location.
Not every NIC supports PXE. To boot from a network location without PXE, you can create boot media that forces your PC to boot from a network location
Installing Mac OSX over a Network
NETBOOT enables you to install MacOS X over a network. You can load identical images on multiple MACs, installing OS X on the hard drives of many remote systems. You can use NetBoot to push specific applications to many computers at once. NetBoot will be mentioned on EXAM.
NetBoot is a technology from Apple which enables Macs with capable firmware (i.e. New World ROM) to boot from a network, rather than a local hard disk or optical disc drive. NetBoot is a derived work from the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), and is similar in concept to the Preboot Execution Environment.
Troubleshooting Installation Problems: Media Errors
Usually a scratched DVD
Troubleshooting Installation Problems: RAID Array not Detected
If Windows fails to detect a RAID array during installation, this could be used by Windows not having the proper driver for the hard drive. If the hard drives show up in the RAID controller setup utility, then it;s certainly a driver issue
RAID (redundant array of independent disks; originally redundant array of inexpensive disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places on multiple hard disks to protect data in the case of a drive failure. However, not all RAID levels provide redundancy.
No Boot Device Present When Booting Off the Windows Installation Disc
either the start-up disc is bad or the CMOS is not set to look at that optical drive first. Access the system setup utility.
Not Ready Error on Optical Drive
You probably need to give the optical drive a chance to catch up. Press R for retry a few times. You also may have a damaged installation disc, or the optical drive may be too slow for the system
Graphical Mode Errors
Once this part of installation begins, errors can come from a number of sources such as hardware or driver problems.
Hardware Detection Errors
Failure to detect hardware properly by any version of Windows Setup can be avoided by researching compatibility. Windows created ability to run on several hardware platforms using a layer of software of software tailored specifically for the hardware called the HARDWARE ABSTRACTION LAYER (HAL).
Lockups During Installation
most challenging problem because they don't tell you what is causing the problem.
1. Unplug it. System lockups occur in Windows Setup queries the hardware. If system locksup, turn off the computer. Unplug it completely. Do not press the reset button. Then turn back on, boot into setup and rerun the Setup program. Windows will see the partial installation and restart the installation process automatically. MS used to call this a SMART RECOVERY but the term has faded from use.
2. Disc, Drive or Image Errors. Bad media can mess things up. Bad optical drives can cause lockups. A fault on USB-based drive can stop an installation. A problem with downloaded ISO image can cause lockups. Check in media component.
3. Log Files. Windows generates a number of a special text files called LOG FIILES that track the progress of certain processes. Creates different log files for different purposes. Stores log files in Windows directory. FOR EXAM, know names of the log files and their location.
to locate log files???? FIND THIS OUT FOR EXAM
Restoring User Data Files (If applicable)
Restore files after installation/
Patches, Service Packs, and Updates
An OS is like an airliner consisting of millions of parts flying in close formation. Think of all maintenance required to keep things the plane safely flying. Like an airliner, the parts (programming code) of your OS were created by different people, and some parts may have been contracted out. No test can test every possible combination of events. The fix for such a problem is a corrective program called a PATCH.
They accumulated patches into some sort of critical mass and then bundled them together as a SERVICE. Windows 7 was the last to get one as of this writing.
Install the latest updates for Windows.
When installing, install the old but adequate drivers. Install all patches and updates before attempting to update any drivers
What is a thin client?
a system designed to handle only very basic applications with the min hardware required by the OS.
Migrating and Retiring Systems
Seasons change and so does the state of the art in computing. At some point you will have to retire an old system. This means you must move the data and users to a new system or at least a new hard drive, a process called MIGRATION and then safely dispose of the old system. MS offers a few tools to accomplish this task, and it is important to know about them for the EXAMS.
User State Migration Tool (USMT)
primary use in business because it has to run in a Windows Server Active Directory domain. If you need to migrate many users, this is the way to go.
If you only have a few users to migrate, use WINDOWS EASY TRANSFER.
Windows Easy Transfer
enables you to migrate user data and personalizations quickly. In Wind Vista/7 is located in the System Tools subfolder of the Accessories folder in the Programs menu.
To locate in Win8/8.1, open the Start screen, type Windows Easy Transfer, and then click on Windows Easy Transfer from the results. Not available in Win10 as yet.
What do you do with the old system or drive? Follow three principles when migrating or retiring a computer:
1. Migrate your users and data information in a secure environment. Until you get passwords in place and test security of the new system, you can't consider that system secure.
2. Remove data remanents from hard drives that you store or give to charity.
3. Recycle the older equipment. Deconstruct hardware.
Cleaning a drive completely is very difficult. You can physically destroy the hard drive or SANITIZE it. Until new data arrives to replace old or deleted data, it remains there so there is a security black hole.
Pro hard drive disposal services will guarantee destroying drives by issuing a CERTIFICATE OF DESTRUCTION.
Sanitizing your drive means the hard drive will still function once the data has been destroyed.
EXAM TIP: know the difference between a standard format and a low-level format.
LOW-LEVEL FORMATTING is used to describe a ZERO-FILL or OVERWRITE operation. The process returns the drive to a state as close to like-new as possible by writing zeros to every location on the drive.
Short for low-level format, a formatting method that creates the tracks and sectors on a hard disk. Low-level formatting creates the physical format that dictates where data is stored on the disk. ... A low-level format is also called a physical format.
Short for high-level format, a formatting method that initializes portions of the hard disk and creates the file system structures on the disk, such as the master boot record and the file allocation tables. Also see low-level format.
When you choose to run a Full format on a volume, files are removed from the volume that you are formatting and the hard disk is scanned for bad sectors. ... If you choose the Quick format option, the format removes files from the partition but does not scan the disk for bad sectors.
several software programs to do this. Overwrites free space with junk data that makes the original data harder to recover.
No installation is perfect
be prepared to reinstate apps or deal with new functions that were absent in the previous OS. You can also invoke a system recovery by pressing a certain key during boot up like F10 or F11. then follow the prompts.
Grab a copy of Windows and fling onto a system and let her rip.
EXAM TIP: understand these procedures.
What three functions does a home server PC provide?
Media streaming, file sharing, print sharing
What does CompTIA call a PC case built for a home theater>?
What is the most component for building a virtualization workstation?
What is the most common boot method for installing Windows 8?
Boot to a Windows DVD
When you install an operating system alongside an existing OS, what do you create?
A multiboot installation
If you do not complete the activation process for Windows 7, what will happen to your computer?
The computer will work 30 days and then Windows will be disabled.
If Windows locks up during the installation, what should you do?
Unplug the computer and restart the installation process?
Which term describes a combo of many updates and fixes in Windows Visa/7?
You've replaced Jane's Win7 PC with a new Win8.1 machine. What post-installation tool should you run to make the transition as painless as possible for her?
Windows Easy Transfer
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