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major functions of the skin - 4

prevents excessive water loss, temperature regulation, involved in sensory phenomena, provides barrier against microbial invaders (prevents biological molecules)

microbes that live on the skin

YEAST: Malassezia; BACTERIA: Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, diptheroids

what makes normally harmless microbes that live on the skin produce disease

if they penetrate epidermis or if immune system is suppressed


infection of the hair follicle (pimple)

folliculitis on eyelid base


what produces furuncles (boil)

folliculitis infection that has spread to surrounding tissues

what is a carbuncle

multiple furuncles that have grown together

what is the most common cause of folliculitis

staphylococcus in grapelike arrangements isolated from pus, blood, or other fluids

what are the two species of staphylococcus commonly found on skin

staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus aureus

characteristics of staphylococcus - 3

bacteria that are facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci arranged in clusters

what are staphylococcus tolerant of

salt, desiccation, sebum, keratin

what does S. aureus production of beta-lactamase cause

resistance to penicillin

what are virulence factors of S. aureus

enzymes, antiphagocytic capsule, protein A, toxins

diseases caused by S. aureus - 8

skin disease - folliculitis, sty, furuncle, carbuncle; staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome; impetigo; staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; bacteremia; endocarditis; pneumonia; food poisoning

what causes SSSS

one or two different staphylococcus aureus strains that secrete exfoliative toxins, which dissolve proteins that hold cell membranes together

what is characteristic of SSSS

epidermis peels off in sheets

what causes impetigo

80% S. aureus; 20% S. pyogenes

what is S. pyogenes often called

Group A Streptococcus

what causes all cases of Erysipelas

S. pyogenes

what is Erysipelas the result of

impetigo infections which have spread through the lymph nodes

who is most likely to get impetigo


who is most likely to have impetigo turn into erysipelas


what causes necrotizing fasciitis

S. pyogenes, which invade tissues through breaks in the skin and secrete Exotoxin A and streptolysin S

characteristics of necrotizing fasciitis

flulike symptoms, digestion of connective tissue around muscles, toxemia, and death

what causes acne

dead Propionibacterium acnes (normal microbiota) and/or S. aureus combined with living leukocytes

what is used to treat acne

doxycycline and benzoyl peroxide; accutane for severe acne

what is cat scratch disease caused by

Gram-negative Bartonella henselae

how is G(-) Bartonella henselae transmitted

by cat bites or scratches

what causes pseudomonas infection

pseudomonas aeruginosa

who is likely to get pseudomonas infection

burn victims (bacteria grow under the surface of the burn)

why is pseudomonas difficult to treat

P. aeuruginosa is resistant to multiple drugs and disinfectants, and it is widespread

what is Rocky Mtn. Spotted Fever (RMSF) caused by

Rickettsia rickettsii

who carries Rickettsia rickettsii


what does RMSF cause

petechiae hemorrhages and sometimes encephalitis

what causes cutaneous anthrax

bacillus anthracis that infects a cut in the skin

what is produced as a result of cutaneous anthrax

crusty ulcer on the skin called black sore-eschar

what are poxviruses that cause human disase

smallpox; orf (sheep and goat), cowpox, monkeypox - rarely cause disease in humans

what was first human disease to be eradicated


what causes chickenpox

herpes virus (varicella-zoster virus - VZV)

characteristics of poxvirus

produce lesions that progress through stages and then dry to form crust and possibly scar; fever

stages of pox - 6

macules (flat), papules (raised), vesicles (fluid-filled), pustules or pox (pus filled), crust, scar

what is shingles

chickenpox virus (varicella-zoster virus) that has been latent and dormant for many years and then reactivated

what causes warts

papillomaviruses that spread via direct contact or fomites

what causes almost all cervical cancers

genital warts

what causes rubella

togaviridae: rubivirus

what is rubella also known as

German measles, rubeola, 3-day measles

what virus causes birth defects

rubella (German measles)

who are primary rubella patients

child, fetus

how bad is skin rash associated with rubella


are Koplik's Spots present with rubella


what causes measles

paramyxoviridae: morbillivirus

primary measles patients


what is measles also called

rubeola and red measles

what are complications of measles - 3

pneumonia, encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

extent of skin rash associated with measles


are Koplik's Spots present with measles


what causes erythema infectiosum

Parvoviridae: erythrovirus

what is Erythema infectiosum

respiratory disease that also manifests as a rash

what is Erythema infectiosum also called

fifth disease

what are mycoses

fungal diseases

what are superficial mycoses

mycoses that produce keritinase and dissolve keratin of the hair, nails and skin

what are cutaneous mycoses

mycoses that grow in the skin and manifest as cutaneous lesions, caused by dermatophytes

what are systemic mycoses

mycoses affecting numerous systems

what is piedra

superficial mycoses infection on hair shafts caused by Piedraia hortae (black piedra) and Trichosporon beigelii (white piedra)

what is pityriasis

skin infection caused by Malassezia furfur, which feeds on oil produced by the skin

what is rose gardner's disease (sporotrichosis)

subcutaneous infection usually limited to arms and legs, but can enter lymphatic system near the site of the primary lesion, giving rise to secondary lesions on the skin surface along the course of lymphatic vessels

what causes rose gardener's disease

Sporothrix schenckii, which resides in soil and is most commonly introduced in wounds by thorn pricks or wood splinters

what is rose gardner's disease that has entered lymphatic system

lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis

what are common dermatophytoses - 5

tinea pedis (athlete's foot); tinea cruris (jock itch); tinea unguium or onchomycosis(nail fungus); tinea corporis (ringworm); tinea capitis (scalp)

what type of environment is the CNS



free of normal microbiota

how do pathogens access the CNS - 4

breaks in bones and meninges, medical procedures, traveling in peripheral neurons to CNS, infecting and killing cells of meninges (meningitis)

what two ways does bacteria cause disease in nervous system

1. infect cells of nervous system; 2. bacteria growing elsewhere release toxins that affect neurons

what results from infected cells in nervous system

meningitis, leprosy

what are the two forms of meningitis

cranial (encephalitis), spinal

what are the bacteria that cause meningitis

streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitides, haemophilus influenzae, listeria monocytogene, streptococcus agalactiae

listeria monocytogen characteristics - 3

disease in fetuses, pregnant women, immunocompromised individuals; least common bacterial meningitis; transmitted by contaminated foods

streptococcus pneumoniae characteristics - 2

leading cause of adult bacterial meningitis, but present in throat of 75% of humans without causing harm

neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis) characteristics - 3

causes 100% mortality if left untreated; only bacterial meningitis that becomes epidemic; virulancy depends on capsule and fimbriae

causes most cases of newborn meningitis (acquired during birth)

streptococcus agalactiae

how are most species of bacterial meningitis transmitted

respiratory droplets

how is bacterial meningitis diagnosed

based on symptoms and culturing of bacteria from CSF from spinal tap

bacterial meningitis s/s - 6

RAPID, sudden high fever; severe meningeal inflammation - cranial meninges (headache, vomiting, pain) and spinal meninges (stiff neck, altered muscle control); infection of the brain (encephalitis) can result in behavioral changes, coma, death

medical name for leprosy

Hansen's disease

nonprogressive leprosy, in patients with strong immune response

tuberculoid leprosy

leprosy resulting in progressive tissue destruction, in patients without strong immune response

lepromatous leprosy

causative agent of leprosy

mycobacterium leprae

MOST deadly bacterial toxin

clostridum botulinum

what does clostridum botulinum manifest as - 3

foodborne, infant or wound botulism

what causes tetanus, and how

clostridum tetani, by releasing neurotoxin tetanospasmin, which blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters in CNS, resulting in severe muscular contractions

what is the most mild form of meningitis?

viral meningitis

what causes 90% of viral meningitis?


how is viral meningitis spread

respiratory droplets and feces

conditions of poliomyelitis(polio)

asymptomatic infections, minor polio, nonparalytic polio, paralytic polio

90% of polio cases

asymptomatic infections

least common type of polio

paralytic polio

postpolio syndrome

muscle deterioration that affects 80% of polio patients 30-40 years after initial illness

what causes polio


how is polio transmitted most often

drinking contaminated water

what are the only hosts for leprosy (Hansen's disease)

armadillos and humans

what two diseases of the nervous system are causted by protozoa

African sleeping sickness, primary amebic meningoencephalopathy

what causes African sleeping sickness, how?

Trypanosoma brucei, through bite of an infected Tsetse fly

what causes primary amebic meningoencephalopathy

protozoans Acanthamoeba and Naegleria

what is primary amebic meningoencephalopathy

rare, but usually fatal disease found in contact lens solution, dialysis units, swimming pools

how does an infant get infected with botulism

through inhalation or ingestion of C. bolulinum endospores, particularly in honey

where do bacteria due to infant botulism grow


first symptom of infant botulism


other signs and symptoms of infant botulism

muscle weakness (floppy baby syndrome) causes weak cry, poor feeding (weak suckling), loss of head control, respiratory distress; may also experience lethargy and descending paralysis

what causes arboviral encephalitis

blood sucking arthropods (mosquitos)

what is rabies

degenerating brain and spinal cord disease that is zoonotic

spongiform encephalopathies

caused by prion (infectious protein); includes scrapie, mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt Jacob disase

how is spongiform encepphalopathy contracted

eating meat from infected cattle

what causes trachoma (conjunctivitis, pink eye)

chlamydia trachomatis that multiplies in the conjunctiva

what does untreated trachoma cause


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