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MGIS 130 Midterm Review
Terms in this set (59)
What is a system?
Something that maintains its existence and functions through the interaction of its parts
What is systems thinking?
A way to see the patterns that connect the parts and determine the rules that govern these connections
A way of seeing the world!
Thinking that we can make a change to one thing that will DIRECTLY IMPACT the next thing that will impact the next thing and so on
Thinking that one change can impact something then that change will impact something from the beginning — there are LOOPS, going back and forth
The whole is determined by the behavior of it's parts
Studying the parts as what makes up the whole. Thinking about it piece by piece.
The behavior of the parts is to some degree determined by the behavior of the whole.
"systems thinking" "synthesis"
Upward Causation can be incorrect because sometimes the sum of the parts does not determine the whole.
(dividing a cow in half does not give you two smaller cows)
What exists in the presence of the whole system that doesn't exist in just the parts.
(birds flying in formation)
Both in NATURAL and in MANMADE systems
-Output is applied to control the system
-Drives the system towards its goal
Only in MANMADE systems
Result from people acting on predictions about the future
(self-fulfilling prophecy concept)
Systems inside other systems
4 Principles for Applying Systems Thinking
- Define/identify boundaries
- Identify the parts within that
- Expect delays
- Get multiple perspectives
Armstrong's Systems Approach
A general framework for solving problems.
4 Stages of the Systems Approach
1. Identifying Objectives
2. Establishing Indicators of Success
3. Developing Alternative Strategies
4. Selecting the Operational Program
You CANNOT JUMP AHEAD, but you can loop back
1st stage in the systems approach.
Determining the goal
Establishing indicators of success
2nd stage in the systems approach.
Identifying how changes in the system will affect each of the objectives - how will you know if you succeed?
Developing alternative strategies?
3rd step in systems approach.
Figuring out all the different sets of actions we could take
4th step in the systems approach.
Narrowing down the strategies to come up with a real
plan of what you are going to do
What does it mean to allocate a separate time period for each step?
Carryout each step in an explicit manner with a written summary. Define the decisions made at each stage.
What's the difference between systems thinking and the systems approach?
Systems thinking is a way to see the world and the systems approach is a way of solving a problem
What does it mean to move from conceptual to operational or move from objectives to means?
Think of big picture first, then go into what you are actually going to do
An process and perspective that applies a designer's sensibilities and methods to business challenges or opportunities.
6 Characteristics of a Design Thinking Approach
- Multiple Types of Expertise
- Prototyping & Iteration
- Wicked Problems
- Systems Orientation
3 Parts of the Information Systems Triangle
- Business processes
- Information technology
4 Types of People within an Information System
The 2 sides of the types of people in an information system
Line of Business Side (owners and users)
Technical Side (designers and builders)
The concept of indeterminacy - Design problems generally don't have obvious or definitive answers or limits
Challenges that design thinking poses
Most managers aren't trained in design approaches - Design thinking requires different skills
Design thinking may imply a more expensive process
9 Attitudes for Design Thinking
2. Challenging assumptions
3. Constructive discontent
4. A belief that most problems can be solved
5. The ability to suspend judgment and criticism
6. Seeing the good in the bad
7. Problems lead to improvements
8. A problem can also be a solution
9. Problems are interesting and emotionally acceptable
Enterprise Resource Planning
Supply Chain Management
Customer Relationship Management
What is Enterprise Resource Planning?
(ERP) Big databases across a whole company
What is Supply Chain Management?
(SCM) Pushing beyond the boundaries of one company, exchanging data within a market - multiple businesses
What is Customer Relationship Management?
(CRM) Pulling in information from customers to make the product/service better
What is Business Intelligence?
(BI) Informs us about making better systems by pulling in data - improvement
Anyone who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system
Skills of a Systems Analyst
The physical components that enable computing.
The sets of instructions (i.e., computer programs) that enable computers to perform tasks as well as the encoded data that the programs use.
Enabling multiple people within a company to get people to work more efficiently within the company.
Examples of Collaboration Systems
- Workflow management
- Content management systems
- Social networking tools
Computer Aided Design:
Software we use to deign a new product
Computer Aided Manufacturing:
After CAD, once we've got the design of a product we can actually apply it and print it out
Information Systems Categories
An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information.
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) that supports team interactions.
Product Design Systems
Software platforms that enable collaborative teams to design new products and artificial environments.
Precursor to the internet from the defense department (late 60s)
Communications process in which a single path or line must remain open between sender and receiver to enable transmission
Data is broken up into small "packets" or "datagrams"
Individual packets are routed to their destination by the most efficient means available and reassembled at their destination
Transmission Control Protocol: What breaks up up the parts to form packets and puts them back together.
Internet Protocol: The addressing for the internet. Every device connected to the internet has one.
- A unique numeric identifier for an Internet host (i.e., device on the Internet)
- Every host must have an IP address
Components that underlay an into systems system foundation.
Trends of Computing Devices
1. Decreasing size
2. Increasing computational power
3. Increasing affordability and accessibility
4. Increasing mobility
5. Increasing integration and embeddedness
6. From scarcity to surplus (e.g. bandwidth, memory, computing power)
Internet of Things
The connection of diverse devices to the Internet; these devices can thus send and receive data.
Putting computational power in things like houses, cars, clothes, refrigerators
The branch of computer science that is concerned with producing machines that can manifest intelligent behavior and are capable of learning and adapting
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