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Conceptual Physics: Test #2: Newton's Laws/Momentum and Impulse:
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Terms in this set (24)
Newton's First Law:
States that every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted upon by a nonzero net force(unbalanced; outside forces). Newton's first law can be referred to as the "Law of Inertia." Generally, it restates Galileo's idea that a force is not needed to keep an object moving(formalized what Galileo had done).
Newton's Second Law:
Describes the relationship among an object's mass, an object's acceleration, and the net force on the object. It states that acceleration constitued by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is the same direction as the net force, but is inversely proportional to the mass of the object; f=ma; a=f/m; m=f/a. A
Newton's Third Law:
Describes the relationship between two forces in an interation. Essentially, Newton's law sates that whenver an object exerts a force on a second object, the second objects exerts an equal yet opposite force on the object. Can also be referred to as the law of "action and reaction."
Inertia:
The tendency of an object prone to resist any change in motion. Generally, an object's resistence to change. Newton's first law is referred to the "Law of Interia." A natural property of a body proven by Galileo. Directly proportional to the mass of an object. The greater mass, the greater the inertia(mutual relationship).
Pressure:
The amount of force per unit of area. =1 PA(unit for pressure. ; When force is perpendicular to surface area, pressure=force/area of application. Area and pressure inversely proportional.
Inversely Proportional:
Means that two values change in opposite directions. The denominator increases, the whole number decreases by the same factor. Essentially, when one factor goes up, the other goes down. An example of this is acceleration and mass.
Directly Proportional:
Two values alter in the same direction. Generally, when factor icreases by a certain value, the other factor increases by the same value. The symbol ~ represents that one object "is directly proportional to." When one goes up, the other goes up. (Accerleration and force.)
Action Force:
One pair of forces consisted in Newton's Third Law. Object A exerts a force on Object B. (1 on 2)
Reaction Force:
Another pair of forces incorporated in Newton's Third Law. Object B exerts a force back in equal maginute yet opposite direction on the Object A. (2 on 1)
Relationship between action and reaction force:
"To every action, there is always an equal opposing reaction." They are partners in a single interaction; therefore, exist with one another.
Momentum:
The mass of an object multiplied by its velocity. More loosely, interia in motion. Momentum=mass x velocity; momentum-mv(abbreviated notion), momentum= mass x speed(direction isn't viable). A moving object can have a large momentum if it has a large mass, large speed, or both.
Impulse:
The quanity force x time interval(triangle mv=Ft). The greater the impulse exerted on something, the greater will be the change in momentum. Impulse=change in momentum. The change in momentum depends on the force that acts, and the time duration it acts for.
Conservation of Momentum:
Net momentum(before collision)=net momentum(after collision); This law states that in absense of external force, the momentum of a system remains interchangeable(does not change).
Elastic Collision:
Descibes the occurence when objects collide without permanantly deformed or without generating heat, colliding objects bounce in perfectly composed elastic collisions. Sum=before and after. (Air molecules); no energy lost.
Inelastic collisions:
A collision in which colliding objects become distorted and generate heat amid the collision(stick together in perfect circumstances amid an inelastic collision). Energy lost. Momentum is conservered however. Permanent change in shape.
Distance:
Meters(m)
Mass:
Kilograms(kg)
Time:
Seconds(s)
Force:
Newtons(N)
Velocity:
Distance/time(m/s)
Acceleration:
distance/time2 (m/s2)
Momentum:
(Mass)(Velocity); (kg m/s)
Impulse:
(Force)(Time); (N m)
Pressure:
Force/Area(N/m2)
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