Autoregulation in the kidneys refers to:
local minor reflex adjustments in the arterioles to maintain normal blood flow
Choose the basic cause of osteodystrophy associated with chronic renal failure.
failure of the kidney to activate vitamin D
Cystitis is more common in females due to:
the urethra is short, wide, and adjacent to areas with resident flora
In a case of acute pyelonephritis, what is the cause of flank pain?
inflammation, stretching the renal capsule
In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the glomerular inflammation results from:
type III hypersensitivity reaction
In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the inflammation causes:
increased permeability of the glomerular capillaries, glomerular congestion and decreased GFR. A and B.
The reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys is directly controlled by:
atrial natriuretic hormone, antidiuretic hormone. C, 1 and 2.
Renal disease frequently causes hypertension because:
congestion and ischemia stimulates release of renin
Under what circumstances do cells in the kidneys secrete renin?
Blood flow in the afferent arteriole decreases.
Urinary casts are present with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis because of:
inflamed tubules mold RBCs and protein into a typical mass
What causes the dark urine associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?
increased glomerular permeability resulting in gross hematuria
What factors contribute to headache, anorexia, and lethargy with kidney disease?
increased blood pressure, elevated serum urea, anemia, acidosis. 1, 2, 3, 4. All of the above.
What is a cause of acute tubule necrosis and acute renal failure?
prolonged circulatory shock, sudden significant exposure to nephrotoxins, crush injuries or burns. All of the above.
What is the first indicator in the arterial blood gases of acidosis caused by kidney disease?
increased carbonic acid, increased bicarbonate ion, pH less than 7.35, decreased bicarbonate ion. A, b, c, d. all of the above.
What is the primary reason for hypocalcemia developing during end-stage renal failure or uremia?
a deficit of activated vitamin D and hyperphosphatemia
What would be the long-term effects of chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys?
gradual necrosis, fibrosis, and development of uremia
When a respiratory infection with high fever is present in the body, how would the kidney tubules maintain normal pH of body fluids?
Secrete more acids and reabsorb more bicarbonate ions.
When comparing normal kidney function with dialysis, which of the following mechanisms is not possible in dialysis?
Which disease would cause an increased ASO titer and elevated serum ASK?
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Which factor contributes to severe anemia in individuals with chronic renal failure?
limited protein intake
Which of the following congenital defects is a common cause of cystitis in young children?
Which of the following describes the correct flow of blood in the kidney?
afferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the efferent arteriole
Which of the following describes the flow of filtrate in the kidney?
Bowman's capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle
Which of the following describes the normal flow of urine?
collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder
Which of the following functions would be impaired when tubular epithelial cells have been damaged?
adjusting the specific gravity of the urine
Which of the following indicates the early stage of acute renal failure?
very low GFR and increased serum urea
Which of the following is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?
exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke
Which of the following relates to polycystic kidney disease?
It results in gradual degeneration and chronic renal failure.
Which of the following results from decreased blood flow into the kidneys?
increased angiotensin and systemic vasoconstriction
Which of the following should be present in the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule?
sodium and potassium ions
Which of the following would likely cause chronic renal failure?
persistent bilateral glomerulonephritis
Which pathophysiologic process applies to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?
immune complexes deposit in glomerular tissue, causing inflammation
Which statement about the bladder is TRUE?
Three openings from the urinary bladder form the trigone.
Which substance directly controls the reabsorption of water from the collecting ducts?
Why does blood pressure often remain near normal in patients with nephrotic syndrome?
Hypoproteinemia results in significant fluid shift to the interstitial compartment.