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DipTESOL Unit 1 Quotes
Terms in this set (83)
Through a combination of self-, peer- and teacher-based assessment (Stoynoff 2015), we can start to reflect on the success of the approach and adapt the plan over time based on feedback
In recent years a sociocultural perspective on learning has become prevalent, which views learning as 'a process that is developmental, socially constructed, interactive and reflective'
This has heralded a new era in classroom-based assessment practices and procedures in ESL whereby teaching, learning and assessment are all entwined and self-, peer- and teacher-based assessment all play a role
Self-assessment enables students to monitor and assess themselves
while making them more receptive to feedback and aware of their own needs
Bryant & Carless 2009
Peer assessment is important as it 'contributes to the development of student learning and promotes ownership of the assessment processes'
'Two stars and a wish' peer assessment
method whereby students are grouped in pairs and asked to give feedback to each other. They identify two positive features (the 'stars') and one suggestion for how the work could be improved (the 'wish')
'No hands up, except to ask a question' rule. This means that after I ask questions and give students time to think about the answers, I will choose students at random to answer. The outcome is that this helps to identify students in the class who haven't grasped a language point and over time I can build a picture of the pupils' progress.
raises concern for Hong Kong students who face test anxiety and stress from the age of six onwards.
identified that when students are learning to pass tests they tend not to acquire knowledge or learn to construct patterns of logical thought, but instead for example, become adept at recognising random facts for multiple choice tests.
Harlen & Deakin-Crick 2003
state how students often label themselves as 'winners' or 'losers' on the basis of test results often resulting in lower achieving students disengaging from education.
Nicol &Macfarlane-Dick 2006
identified that through formative assessment students become self-regulated learners as they are always actively involved in monitoring and regulating their own performance to reach their goals
highlights the importance of differentiating teacher talk for the stronger students and the struggling students
stresses that differentiated tasks and material is crucial for a successful approach to instruction, stating how 'offering multiple and varied
avenues to learning is a hallmark of the kind of professional quality that denotes expertise'
Tomlinson & Imbeau 2010
discuss how much children differ 'including in their strengths, interests, and preferences; personalities and approaches to learning; and knowledge, skills, and abilities...' and as a result 'teaching and interactions with children should be as individualised as possible'
Second language acquisition research suggests that in classrooms where learners are actively involved in the learning process and the opportunities for interaction are maximised, acquisition is facilitated
identifies two reasons for teaching grammar. The first is comprehensibility - for the learner to be able to understand and be better understood. The second is acceptability e.g. to pass an exam, impress an employer, avoid being considered 'uneducated' etc.
highlights that 'if the ESL learners concerned are young children, it is most likely that little explicit grammar instruction is needed. If the students are adolescents or adults, however, their learning may well be facilitated by some explicit focus on form'
young learners use language skills without being able to analyse why or how to use them
defines collocations as words that occur together in 'statistically significant ways' in natural text.
states that 'it is possible that up to 70% or everything we say, hear, read or write is to be found in some form of fixed expression'
Learners who lack collocational competence often use longer, wordier sentences featuring grammatical errors and suffer from comprehension issues
Teaching collocations can result in an improvement of a learners' oral fluency, reading speed and listening comprehension
explains how native speakers draw on a repertoire of ready-made
language to enable them to process and produce language at speed. He goes on to
highlight that the primary reason learners struggle with listening or reading is due to
the 'density of unrecognised collocations'
"Learners who lack collocational knowledge often make longer sentences simply
because they are not aware of the collocation to reflect their thoughts"
"In addition, ESL learners often fail to produce collocations in the correct order,
primarily due to there being no prescribed set of rules"
stresses that by teaching students certain flexible chunks the learner
focuses on the meaning and doesn't need to think about the grammar.
Islam & Timmis 2003
"Following the lexical approach helps learners increase their bank of
words and phrases without having to explain all the grammar rules"
cycle of: observe, hypothesise, experiment
stresses how noticing examples of language in context is central to language acquisition.
Richards & Rogers 1986
There are three theoretical views of language learning that 'explicitly or implicitly inform current approaches' - the structural view, the functional view and the interactional view.
Richards & Rogers 1986
Audiolingualism fits within the structural view whereby the goal for language learning is to master the structural elements of the language system. The principals are based on: language learning being a process of forming good habits; language being learned more effectively if it is presented in the spoken form before the written form; grammar being taught inductively rather than deductively: the culture of the native speakers being intrinsic to comprehension
Evidence suggests those involved in teacher-fronted activities should be looking to engage learners in the classroom discourse and encourage opportunities for interaction and self-expression
Teaching chunks is widely used today e.g. through the lexical approach
In the teacher-fronted classroom there are limited opportunities for learners to share ideas but with the teacher guiding them through task-based activities working in pairs and small groups, a lively and rich language environment can be created for learners of all abilities
stresses the importance of reporting back after a task.
recommends matching tasks to introduce new vocabulary
found students often focus on task completion and produce only the minimal linguistic output to complete the task.
states "sometimes problem-solving tasks are over too quickly - learners agree on the first solution... using minimal language"
Richards & Rogers 1986
TPR is 'a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical activity'
did not advocate only using TPR as a strategy for learning, but recommended using it in combination with other techniques.
refers to language being internalised as wholes or chunks rather than single lexical items.
Asher 1977 / Kumar 2013
advocated using the TPR method in conjunction with other techniques and this is the founding principle of the eclectic approach that is widely used today.
highlights the importance of using authentic listening material that will engage the listener
promotes listening for understanding in a safe environment
advocates using authentic material that 'students will find interesting and motivating'
highlights the importance of micro-listening exercises to help equip 'learners with the subskills of a competent native listener'
suggests decoding techniques such as gap fill featuring 'lexical and grammatical words which are already part of the students' active vocabulary, but which are pronounced less clearly due to assimilation, elision, lack of stress and so on'
states 'development is almost always more powerful when it involves other people'
believes that the 'quality of the progress you make in teaching is partly to do with other people'
identifies two places where ELT teachers can collaborate - in the classroom and outside the classroom.
states that 'peer observation, in various forms and team teaching (teaching a class together) are two key ways for teachers to develop their awareness of their own teaching'
reinforces that we learn a lot by seeing our lesson through an observer's eyes, as well as watching our colleagues and taking inspiration from their lesson.
highlights how a peer observation is not about a colleague giving training feedback but instead it is an exchange of ideas on your different views and ways of working
identified that shared teaching enables teachers to take advantage of different individual's strengths in planning and drives creativity as the teachers know they are teaching for their colleagues as well as the learners.
Long and Hoa 2010
advocate critical friends groups (CFG) whereby, a group of 10-12 teachers discuss students' work or a specific dilemma and potential solutions to promote teacher learning and improve student outcomes.
talks about developing a virtual staffroom to enable teachers to
communicate effectively when they are away from school.
Colleagues can hear and notice things in the class that the teacher may not be aware of
The communication skills needed to communicate well with colleagues require practice
suggests that if teachers feel their progression is stalling, they should join or start a teacher development group, so this group will be set-up for teachers to share ideas and support each other.
outlines how 'educational action research is principally a strategy for the development of teachers as researchers so that they can use their research to improve their teaching and thus their students' learning'.
Teacher-fronted classroom activities tend not to promote discussion, but by adapting questioning strategies lessons can become student-centred
Sadeghi, Ansari & Rahmani 2015
Teacher talk with the encouragement of language interaction has a positive effect on learners' engagement
Kukulska-Hulme & Shield 2007
state that mobile assisted language learning has evolved from 'a purely teacher-learner, text-based model to one that supports multimedia, collaborative listening and speaking activities' that allow learners to 'co-construct knowledge to solve problems and fill information gaps'
highlights how camera phones 'provide a great way to ask learners to 'notice' grammar around them'
identifies how 'learners can record themselves speaking English and share it with friends, who can offer feedback'
argues that 'Some educators believe that students spend too much time with digital devices, which contributes to an alienation of students in the classroom '
stresses that mobile learning must relate to wider pedogoical issues so the start point for using mobile devices to support learning must be to set clear learning objectives
highlights the importance of defining whether learners will use devices as 'a resource and tool covering a range of functions in every class' or as a discrete item for 'one-off activities'
advocates using technology in the classroom. 'to access dictionaries, to research on the web or take polls' or for independent study outside the classroom 'to play games, to listen to podcasts, to learn vocab'
recommends introducing 'apps and mobile learning activities one at a time' so as not to overwhelm students
As children are naturally sociable they have an innate tendency to pair and group work although they need to learn how to do this to reinforce good behavior
stresses the importance of gradually giving pupils more control.
found that senior staff in Hong Kong schools do not always 'support the rationale for task-based learning', so before starting the project I sought permission from my Head Teacher, Year Head and the LETs.
believes songs in tasks help learners transfer the lyrics into real-life use
advocates building everyone's confidence in speaking in whole-class activities so participation carries over to group work.
found the main issue ESL primary teachers in Hong Kong face is pupils' negative or indifferent attitudes to English
Often mainstream novice teachers find they are overwhelmed by classroom management issues when they step into the classroom as qualified teachers and many of them rank student discipline as their top concern in their first year
Macias & Sanchez 2015
identified that ESL programmes could be improved by providing trainees with classroom management skills.
Prodromou & Clandfield 2007
Research into 'language learning and cutting-edge methodologies' taking precedence over 'what to do when students make life difficult for the teacher'
Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke & Curran 2004
found that different cultures have different expectations of appropriate behaviour, concluding that teachers need to understand and be able to apply culturally appropriate classroom management strategies
defines classroom management as 'a multi-faceted concept that includes the organisation of the physical environment, the establishment of rules and routines, the development of effective relationships, and the prevention of and response to misbehaviour'
Prodromou & Clandfield 2007
stress that sometimes teachers need to adopt a less optimistic approach to instil in the learners 'a greater sense of responsibility for their own actions'.
Tomlinson & Imbeau 2010
state that as students become comfortable with the routines 'they become increasingly aware of the role they play in their own learning, and they develop increasing ownership in the successful operation of the entire classroom'.