the ability to recognize & produce the sounds that are used in a language
the ability to focus on, hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes, or the individual sounds that make up spoken words
In phonology, a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or vowel-consonant combination
repetition of similar sounds in two or more words, most often at the end of lines in poems and songs
Sharing identical or at least similar medial and final phonemes in the final syllable-- be similar in sound, especially with respect to the last syllable
a sequence of two or more consonant sounds within a syllable, such as cl, br, or st; it is the written language equivalent of consonant cluster.
high frequency sight words
the words the reader recognizes almost instantly and with little conscious effort, or automatically.
recognizing the corresponding sound of a specific letter when that letter is seen or heard.
process students use to sound out written words they don't recognize. It is the ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences.
the use of words surrounding an unknown word to determine the unknown word's meaning
all of the sounds in the syllable before the vowel
the vowel sound in a syllable & everything following it
letter that is written but usually left unpronounced
sounds represented by any letter of the English alphabet except a,e,i,o,u. Consonants are sounds that are made by closing or restricting the breath channel. a speech sound that constricts the air as it is stopped and released through the vocal tract, teeth, mouth, and lips
initial consonant sounds
all the sounds represented by the letters a, e, i, o, u. The letter y serves as one of these when it is not the initial sound of a word. These sounds are influenced heavily by the location in a word and by the letters accompanying them. Vowels are sounds made without closing or restricting the breath channel
word identification skills
the skills students learn that help them to figure out the pronunciation of a word in print-- to sound out
make believe reading—turning the pages of a book while inventing words; repeating the content of a book from memory after listening to it before being able to read independently
book handling skills
knowing how to handle a book and how books "work" For example knowing books have a front and a back cover,and readers read by using the left to right sweep
concept of print
knowing the parts of the book, what the print & pictures do & know uppercase & lowercase letters are different versions of the same thing recognize word boundaries, know purpose of punctuation, and track words from left to right, etc.
The left to right tracking of print while reading and the return sweep
language experience approach
dictated stories-- effective in developing the skills of emergent readers.
interactive shared writing
writing process in which the teacher and students write a text together, using a 'shared pen" technique that involves the students in the writing. The teacher acts as the scribe
The print of everyday life. It's the name given to the print that appears in signs, labels, and logos. For many emergent readers, environmental print helps bridge the connection between letters and first efforts to read.
fast, accurate, and effortless word identification at the single word level--- is a prerequisite for fluent reading.
learner's growing recognition of connections & characteristics of a written language-- Knowing about print and books and how they are used.
read left to right, top to bottom
can be thought of as a kind of file cabinet in our brains containing (1) concepts (chairs, birds, ships), (2) events (weddings, birthdays, school experiences), (3) emotions (anger, frustration, joy, pleasure) & (4) roles (parents, judge, teacher) -- Building blocks of cognition in the mind
The process of constructing meaning. Comprehension depends on reader's decoding abilities, prior knowledge, cultural and social background and their ongoing comprehension monitoring strategies
Literal comprehension strategies
Making sense of what is on the page—right there The understanding of what is explicitly stated in a text.
regular phonics pattern
the idea that written letters and letter patterns can be used to represent speech sounds→ The concept that sounds have graphic representation
letter formation skills
the ability to make a letter on a page using eye-hand coordination, correct posture, directionality, and visual motor memory.
listeners can impose boundaries between words, even when these words are not separated by silence. example white space between words
the ability to hear differences in sounds
reading accurately, at a natural pace, and mimics speech in its phrasing and expressiveness
spontaneous, taught as needed, with no isolation of letter sounds
this text has recurring language patterns, includes the repetition of words or language elements, and exhibits a close alignment between pictures and text
groups of words having similar roots or stems
The words most commonly used in reading and writing. Examples: Can, See
Meaning based aids for understanding a word or phrase
? prior knowledge and experience that readers bring to a reading situation
grammatical clues found within phrases or sentences e.g. The big gray _________ ran down the road. Using _________, any noun would fill the blank. --grammatical clues readers process to construct meaning
final consonant sounds
Vowels you hear in the middle of a word; usually follow the VCV pattern
occur at the end of an open syllable-- say their name (a_e, e_e, i_e)
two-vowel combinations where both vowels are heard, but not quite making their usual sound because of the blending
A group of two successive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound. For example, EA in BREAD, CH in chat, or NG in SING ou,oi
two vowels are beside each other in a word or syllable, the first vowel is usually long while the second vowel remains silent → Two vowels combine to make a single sound
Neither long nor short, this vowel sound depends on the R that follows it-- affects the sound of the vowel(s) that precedes it. For example er, ir, ur, ar, or
Oral reading responses that are different from a written text Miscue analysis: informal assessment of oral reading errors to determine the extent to which readers use and coordinate graphic-sound, syntactic and semantic information
meaning clues found in the words, phrases, and sentences that surround an unknown word
The way in which to view a word by its parts. These parts include: prefix, suffix, inflectional endings, and compound words.
A word attack skill that examines prefixes, roots, and suffixes
made when two words are joined to form a new words
the alternating patterns of consonants and vowels at the point where syllables meet-- common consonant vowel patterns that appear frequently in English, such as cvc, cvvc, cvce, ccvcc, etc.
word identification in which the reader uses his or her knowledge of meaning chunks in "words"—takes decoding to a new & higher level
A syllable ending in a vowel sound (pa per)
come from another language & will not stand alone in English --are bound morphemes
formation of mental visual images.
phonics rules that are taught to emerging readers to help them learn letter combination sounds to increase reading and spelling ability.
the various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text
a category of writing that has defining characteristics such as type of characters, setting, action & overall form or structure
content area (Reading)
reading that is usually found in textbooks in the separate disciplines such as social studies, science, math, health, etc. It is not literature.
books designed to teach subject matter
words that are spelled or look the same but sound different Example. tear the paper and a tear from crying
words that have similar but not exactly the same meaning (big: vast, enormous, grand, huge)
words whose meanings are known well enough to an individual that he or she would feel comfortable using them while writing or speaking. This type of vocabulary is generally smaller than listening vocabulary.Written expressive vocabulary is communicating meaning fully through writing
all the words a person recognizes and understands on hearing or reading them.
involves understanding the meaning of words when people speak; written receptive vocabulary concerns understanding to the meaning of words that are read.
The historical origin and development of a word
meaning clues found within phrases or sentences
understanding speech lower levels of listening comprehension understanding only the facts explicitly stated in a spoken passage that has very simple syntax and uncomplicated vocabulary. Advanced levels include implicit understanding and drawing inferences from spoken passages that feature more complicated syntax and more advanced vocabulary
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up. Example: She is pulling my leg
a kind of blueprint in which students sketch out a map based on what is stored in their brain about a topic. This helps the students relate new information to schemata & vocabulary already in their brain, integrate new info & restructure existing info for greater clarity.
visual organizer that can enrich students' understanding of a new concept. Using a graphic organizer, students think about the concept in several ways.
A graphic organizer of major events and ideas from a story to help guide students' thinking and heighten awareness of the structure of stories. The teacher can model this process by filling out a chart and going over story elements as a group
the selection of one's own book for one's own purpose --primary-grade students should engage in independent reading for periods of 5-10 minutes -older students should engage in independent reading for periods of 15-20 minutes
the ability to monitor one's own learning & engagement & evaluate oneself ( looking at one's own thinking & making decisions about it).
point of view
Chiefly in literary texts, the narrative point of view (as in first- or third-person narration); more broadly, the position or perspective conveyed or represented by an author, narrator, speaker, or character.
sequence of events within a literary work. The plot usually begins with an exposition. The central conflict is introduced & developed throughout the rising action until the action reaches its highest point of interest or suspense known as the climax. The climax is followed by the falling action & then resolution. Events occurring after the resolution make up the denouement.
a record of events in the order of their occurrence or arrangement of events in time
the departure from what speakers mean from the standard meaning of words ex. similes and metaphors
quality literature-- simply books you can find in book stores or libraries. They are authentic texts written and illustrated by real authors and illustrators. These books are not basals.
??? Requires that students hypothesize or make a best guess based on their background knowledge of the topic, theme, text type, or other cursory information available to them from previewing the text
the process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge
reference to a person, place, or thing from previous literature
the ability to identify the plot, characters, setting, and theme aids in reading comprehension, leads to a deeper understanding and appreciation of stories, and helps students learn to write stories of their own.
used to convince the reader of the writer's point of view
Having the power to convince based on reasoning, emotional appeal, threats, or personal attractiveness.
written to convey information about a topic
factual or nonfiction—these texts are important for helping children increase their vocabulary and concept knowledge
easy-to-learn skill that is useful with a variety of reading materials—students practice forcing their eyes to move quickly across each line of print—they try to attend to a few key words from each line
a list of different topics that can be found in a book and page numbers where to find them
a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)
a list of definitions for terms or important words used in a text
table of contents
found in the beginning of a book, it lists what is in the book and the page numbers of chapters.
It is a three column chart that asks students to begin with What Do I Know about a topic (activating prior knowledge) and includes What I Want to Learn (setting up a purpose for reading). At the end of the reading, students complete the "What I Learned" column (summarizing)
graphic organizer with 2 overlapping circles that are used to compare/contrast
making a mental picture in one's head
child corrects himself when he makes an error--this very important for language development→ it tells clinician the child knows the word
Standardized assessments intended to compare a student's performance with the performance of others
represents a measure of general performance only. Does not yield precise information about reading ability. Often used as screeners; may be given to groups or individuals.
intentionally captures the student's flaws and documents them, especially early on in the student's skill depths, so that there is real evidence of skill development
reading miscue inventory
helps teachers determine if students' reading miscues (words read differently from what is actually written) -this assessment assists in determining if children are using background and context clues to assist in reading.
measures of validity indicate the degree to which the tests measure what their developers claim they measure
a reliable test is one that provides the same results for the same children with repeated testing no matter who administered the test. - a quality of good tests that assures that a test would produce almost the same results if given again (as long as no new learning or forgetting took place.).
Informal Reading Inventory
informal assessment composed of grade-level word lists and reading passages that progress from lower to higher grade levels
Reads with 90-95% accuracy and 75% comprehension Student reads fairly fluently & comprehends fairly well but still requires some assistance or guidance from teacher.
Below 90% accuracy & 50% comprehension—student reads with difficulty and comprehends poorly. Reader makes more than one mistake in every 10 words read
authentic assessment tool consisting of rubrics and scored student writings
A scoring guide which may have different levels describing the quality of the work
an effective way to find out if students understood what they read is to have them recall what they read
books organized according to their difficulty so that they can be matched to students reading at that level→ important for fluency instruction
This type of reading material supports the prediction of certain features of text and are especially valuable for readers who are not yet fluent or do not use effective reading strategies. Text is predictable when it enables students to quickly and easily predict what the author is going to say and how the author is going to say it based on their knowledge of the world and language. Can contain rhythmical, repetitive, or cumulative patterns, familiar story lines, familiar sequences, or a good match between illustrations and text able texts
The practice of coming between a student and possible failure to acquire literacy
Tier 1 Words
consists of frequently used common words and expressions for which concepts are easily understood, such as butterfly, clock, bed, radio, look,or walk. These words usually don't require intense academic instruction.
Tier 2 Words
"mortar" words—high frequency academic words used across contexts. They are more abstract, such as setting, plot, combine, maintain, fortunate, between, coincidence,etc. Instructional emphasis needs to be on learning and using high frequency words.These words are important for comprehension-- allow students to make connections between ideas & can productively add to a student's language ability. These words appear in a wide variety of texts and in the written and oral language of mature language users.
Tier 3 Words
low frequency words limited to specific domains, such as tundra, lathe, peninsula, and SAT-prep type These words are best learned when specific needs arise
a poem that tells a story
A Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
words that sound like what they mean
Ways words convey meaning--The range of words that a person uses and understands
Ideas, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Sentence Fluency, Conventions
involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment. It is teaching that is focused on producing specific learning outcomes.
Instruction that lies heavily on student-directed learning. The learner is able to understand what is being taught even though it is not directly expressed
parts added to the beginning--prefix-- or end --suffix-- of a root word to create new words.
Activating Prior Knowledge
To activate prior knowledge teachers should: (1) present information which builds background ideas, concepts, and principles; (2) show (not tell) through demonstrations, multi-media, and graphics; (3) use outside resources, trips, and speakers; and (4) talk about personal experience with the topic.
Semantic feature map
visual strategy for vocabulary expansion and extension of knowledge by displaying in categories words related to one another.
is an adaptation of concept definition mapping but builds on students prior knowledge or schema
a question in which the answer can be found directly in the reading/text
A question that asks a responder to draw a conclusion
The speed at which a person reads accurately, usually measured in word per minute.
?? disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence
a question that requires more than a "yes" or "no" answer and requires respondents to construct their own response.
when a vowel comes between 2 consonants, it usually represents a short vowel sound. Example: sat, ran, let, pen, win ,fit, hot, mop, sun & cut
Consonant Vowel Consonant Consonant Example a-- band, last, slant, malt, bald e-- help, melt, weld, west i--wind, pitch, limp o--bond, botch, cost, most u--fund, dump, hunt
vowel digraphs: when 2 vowels come together in a word the 1st vowel usually carries a long sound & the 2nd vowel is silent Example toad, fleet,& day --occurs often with oa,ee,ay combinations Teachers say:"when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking"
Words with the following sequence of letters: consonant, vowel, consonant, and then followed by a silent E at the end. Example tape, bite, take, dive, life
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