Chapter 1: Introduction to computers

Chapter Review
Why is Computer Literacy Vital to Success in Today's World?
Computer Literacy, also called Digital Literacy, involves having current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.
As computers become an increasingly important parte of daily living, many people believe that computer literacy is vial to success.
Because the requirements that determine computer literacy change as technology changes, you must keep up with these changes to remain computer literate.
List and Describe the Five Components of a Computer.
A COMPUTER is an electronic device, operating under the command of instructions stored in tis own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.

The electric, electronic, and mechanical components of a computer, or HARDWARE, include input devices, output devices, a system unit, storage devices, and communications devices.

1, An INPUT DEVICE allows you to enter data or instructions into a computer.

2, An OUPUT DEVICE conveys information to one or more people.

3, The SYSTEM UNIT is a case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process data.

4, A STORAGE DEVICE records and/or retrieves items to and from STORAGE MEDIA.

5, A COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE enable a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers.
What are the advantages and disadvantages that users experience when working with computers?
A USER is anyone who communicates with a computer or utilizes the information it generates.

ADVANTAGES of using a computer include speed, reliability, consistency, storage, and communications.

The DISADVANTAGES of using a computer include violation of privacy, public safety, impact that labor force, health risks, and impact on the environment.
How are the Internet and World Wide Web Used?
The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.

People use the Internet to communicate with and meet other people; conduct research and access information and news, shop for goods and services; bank and invest, participate in online training; engage in entertaining activities; download music and videos; share information, photos, and videos: and to access and interact with the Web applications.
The WEB, short for World Wide Web, contains billions of documents called WEB PAGES.
What are the differences between system software and application software?
SOFTWARE, also called a PROGRAM, is a series of related instructions, organized for a common purpose, that tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to preform them.

The two categories of software are system software and application software.

SYSTEM SOFTWARE consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.

Two types of system software are the OPERATING SYSTEM, which coordinates activities among computer hardware devices, and UTILITY PROGRAMS, which perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.

Popular application software includes a Web browser, word processing software, spreadsheet software, database software, and presentation software.
What are the differences among the Types, Sizes, and Functions in the following Categories: Personal Computers; desktops, Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices, Game Consoles, Servers, Mainframes, Supercomputers, and Embedded Computers?
A PERSONAL COMPUTER is a computer that can perform all its input, processing , output, and storage activities by itself.

A MOBILE COMPUTER is a personal computer that you can carry from place to place, and a MOBILE DEVICE is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand.

A GAME CONSOLE is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games.

A SERVER controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information.

A MAINFRAME is large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously and can store huge amounts of data, instructions, and information.

A SUPERCOMPUTER is the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive computer and is used for applications requiring complex, sophisticated mathematical calculations.

An EMBEDDED COMPUTER is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.
How do various types of computer users interact with computers?
Computer users can be separated into five categories: home user, small office/home office user, mobile user, power user, and enterprise user.

A HOME USER is a family member who uses a computer for a variety of reasons, such as personal financial management, Web access, communications, and entertainment.

A SMALL OFFICE/HOME OFFICE (SOHO) includes any company with fewer than 50 employees or a self-employed individual who works from home and uses basic business software and sometimes industry-specific software.

MOBILE USERS are employees and students who work on a computer while away from a main office, home office, or school.

A POWER USER can exist in all types of businesses and uses powerful computers to work this industry-specific software.

AN ENTERPRISE USER works in or interacts with a company with many employees and uses a computer and computer network that processes high volumes of transactions in a single day.
How does society use computers in education, finance, government, health care, science, publishing, travel, and manufacturing?
In education, students use computers and software to assist with learning or take distance learning classes.

In finance, people use computers for ONLINE BANKING to access information and ONLINE INVESTING to buy and sell stocks and bonds.

Government offices have Web sites to provide citizens with up-to-date information, and government employees use computers as part of their daily routines.

In health care, computers are used to maintain patient records, assist doctors with medical tests and research, file insurance claims, provide greater precision during operations, and as implants.

All branches of science use computers to assist with collecting, analyzing, and modeling data and to communicate with scientist around the world.

Publishers use computers to assist in developing pages and make their works available online.

Many vehicles use some type of online navigation system to help people travel more quickly and safely

Many vehicles use some type of online navigation system to help people travel and safely.

Manufacturers use COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM) to assist with manufacturing processes.