Exam 3: 10,11, and 12
Terms in this set (65)
Which division of the nervous system carries signals to the central nervous system?
Sensory (afferent) division
Which part of the nervous system carries signals from bones and joints to the central nervous system?
What does the central nervous system include?
The brain and spinal cord
The blood brain barrier has what type of nerve cell?
Endothelial or glial cells
Which neurons allow you to withdraw your hand if you touch something hot?
What kind of neuron has one axon and a lot of dendrites?
Which neurons in the CNS connect incoming and outgoing pathways?
If a nerve doesn't have neurilemmal what happens?
It prevents injured CNS neurons from regenerating. This explains why a severed spinal cord is permanent.
If a neuron is polarized and has a lot of sodium on the inside and a lot of potassium on the outside the cell is what?
It wont respond to anything.
Explain nerve impulse conduction in myelinated neurons?
Gaps in the myelin
What happens when action potential reaches a synaptic knob?
The membrane depolarizes. This causes ion channels to open, which allows calcium ions to enter the cells.
a. There are more than 100 in the human body.
b. It binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.
C. A chemical that bridges a very narrow gap to carry the message from the first neuron to the next.
Which nerves innervate the chest, shoulders, and diaphragm?
Cervical region of the spinal cord
Where does the physician get a CSF sample from for a lumbar puncture and why?
Between L3 and L4. Because there is no danger in nicking the spinal cord.
What does gray matter contain?
A. Mainly the cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons.
B. It lacks myelin
Why is white matter white?
Abundance of myelin
What does descending spinal tracts carry?
Motor impulses down the spinal cord to skeletal muscles
Your patient has right-sided paralysis. The MRI shows a stroke on the left side. What is a good
explanation for these symptoms?
Stroke on the left side of the brain
How many pairs of spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord?
If your patient complains of pain to the back of their leg, what do you think they injured?
Which nerve makes the diaphragm do its job for breathing?
What is a somatic reflex?
reflexes employ a neural circuit called a relfex arc, which bypasses regions of the brain where conscious decisions are made.
Where are the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata located? 176
In the brainstem
What would happen if the arachnoid villi stopped functioning?
CSF pressure would build up
Explain about the medulla oblongata.
Attaches the brain to the spinal cord. Relays sensory and motor signals between the brain and spinal cord and performs functions vital to human life.
Discuss the sensory receptors.
The stronger a particular stimulus, the more nerve fibers fire. This allows the brain to interpret the intensity of a sensation.
If your patient is having pain in his lower abdomen, the pain is carried on the?
Slow pain fibers
Identify the proper path of the main pain pathway. Pg. 206
If your patient has a crush injury to his leg, then he begins to vomit, what is a good explanation for the vomiting?
How does taste buds get impulses to the brain?
Taste buds send gustatory impulses directly to the brain by one of the three cranial nerves ...(facial nerve, VII), (glossopharyngeal nerve, IX) and the (vagus nerve, X)
How is the sense of smell triggered?
It's processed by the olfactory bulb
Where would you find the different structures for hearing?
What are the structures of the middle ear?
Auditory ossicles, malleus, Incus and Stapes
In the hearing process, what stimulates nerve impulses on the cochlear nerve?
The organ of corti
What structures play a key role in balance?
The vestibule and semicircular canals of the inner ear
What causes the otoliths to shift and stimulate the vestibular nerve?
When the head tilts or when the entire body moves forward the membrane and the otoliths shift.
Which structure of the eye secretes mucous to keep the eyeball moist?
Which nerves assist in rolling your eyes?
When looking through an ophthalmoscope, what is the center point of the retina?
A patch of cells called the macula lutea
Which part of the retina produces the sharpest vision? Why?
Fovea centralis; Most of the cones are concentrated here.
What happens when the canal of Schlemm is obstructed?
Aqueous humor accumulates first in the anterior chamber and then in the postieor chamber, causing pressure to build.
What is it called when the curvature of the lens changes shape so the eye can focus on near objects?
What does the endocrine system do?
Distributes hormones throughout the body via the bloodstream.
What are steroid hormones?
They bind to receptors in the nucleus associated with the DNA
Explain the second messenger system.
Its a cascade of processes that results in the production of a second messenger. It activates specific enzymes. The enzymes influence cellular reactions, producing the cell's response to the hormone.
How does protein based hormones exert their efforts?
Activates a second messenger system.
Which endocrine gland influences more body processes than any other gland?
Explain the anterior pituitary.
The larger of the two pituitary glands consists of glandular tissue. It synthesizes and secretes a number of very important hormones, all under the direction of the hypothalamus.
What is it called when one endocrine gland stimulates another to secrete a hormone, then that endocrine gland makes the first endocrine gland stop producing its hormone?
What does the pineal gland secrete?
Which gland plays a part in the endocrine and immune system?
What does the thyroid gland secrete?
Calcitonin (T3 triodothyronine and T4 thyroxine)
What would happen if blood calcium levels increased?
What are the effects of the parathyroid hormone?
Causes the kidneys to reabsorb calcium in the blood.
Why would a patient experience severe muscle spasms after their thyroid is removed?
Hypocalcemia; When calcium is in short supply, the charge difference lessens, and sodium ions can more easily enter the cell; Nerve and muscle cells become more excitable.
What would hypersecretion of thyroid hormones cause?
It stimulates the body's metabolism, resulting in a condition called Graves' disease.
Which organ does calcitonin effect?
In what way does thyroid hormone affect heat?
speeds up metabolic rate
Explain the adrenal cortex.
A. It secretes: three glandular tissues
iii. Sex steroids
If the hormone output was increased from the zona glomerulosa region, what would happen?
Kidneys to promote Na+ retention
Which layer of the adrenal cortex is most active when you are stressed?
Help the body adapt to stress and repair damaged tissue by stimulating the breakdown of fat and protein, converting fat and protein to glucose, and releasing fatty acids and glucose into the blood.
What does glucagon, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids have in common?
Explain the pancreas.
It secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine function) as well as hormones used to regulate blood glucose levels (endocrine function).
Which cells secrete insulin?
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