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palatableThe main dish had little flavor, but I made it palatable by adding condiments.slakeOn a sultry afternoon, you can see a long line of people at the drinking fountain, waiting to slake their thirst.succulentThe stake will be dry if you leave it in the oven longer. Take it out now if you want it to be succulent.voraciousChester would not be overweight if he were not a voracious eater.chronicCarl's sore arm is not a new development, but the return of a chronic ailment. Rhoda is a chronic complainer. She is always dissatisfied.concurrentWhen a strike is settled, there will probably be an increase in wages and a concurrent increase in prices.dawdleMy sister dawdles over dishes. Mother gets them done without wasting time.imminentBy the sudden darkening of the skies and a thunder in the distance, we could tell that the rain was imminent.incipientCertain serious diseases can be successfully treated if detected in incipient stages.intermittent:There were intervals when the sun broke through the clouds , because the showers were intermittent.perennialDon't think that war only plagued in our times. It has been a perennial curse of man. Some grasses last only a year. Others are perennial.procrastinateMost of the picnickers took cover when rain seemed imminent. The few procrastinated got drenched.protractWe had planned to stay for only lunch but, at the host's insistence, we protracted our visit until after dinner.sporadicThough polio has been practically wiped out, there have been some sporadic cases of the disease.denizenOn the safari, the hunters stalked lions, tigers and other ferocious denizens of the jungle.DomicileThe announcement read:" The Coppers have moved, and they invite you to visit them at their new domicile, 22 Apple Street.inmateWhen the warder took charge, the prison had fewer than 100 inmates.migrateBecause they were persecuted in England,the Puritans migrated to Holland. In winter, many European birds migrate to the British Isles in search of a more temperature climate.nativeThe entire Russo family are natives of New Jersey except their grandparents, who were born in Italy. Tobacco, tomatoes, and potatoes are native American plants that were introduced into European by explorers returning from the New World.NomadNomads have no fixed homes, but move from region to region to secure their food supply.NomadicWould you like to give up your permanent residence for the nomadic adventures of trailer living.SojournOn his trip home, Gerald will stop in St. Louis for two -day sojourn with relatives.EconomizeHousewives can economize by buying their milk in gallon containers.FrugalThe old man had nothing to eat but bread and cheese; yet he offered to share this frugal meal with his visitor. The allowance of $5 a week for lunches and fares is not much, but you can get by on it if you are frugal.ImpoverishThe increase in dues is only 10 cents, it won't impoverish any memberindigenceBy hand work, countless thousands of Americans have raised themselves from indigence to wealth.Affluentthe new wing to the hospital was made possible by a gift of $500.000 from an affluent contributor.AvaricePeople who suffer avarice spend less and save much more than they should.covetCory coveted his neighborhood's farm but couldn't get her to sell it.dowryWith his wife's dowry, the young attorney was able to open a law office.fleeceIf your brother paid $400 for that car, he was fleeced. The mechanic says it is worth $150.HoardSalas Marner had a reputation as a miser who hoarded every penny he could get his hands on.lavishThe young heir was warned that he would soon have nothing left if he continued to be lavish with his money. Vera's composition is good, but it doesn't deserve the lavish praise that Linda gave it.lucrativeBecause his gas station did not produce a sufficient profit, the owner decided to go into a more lucrative business.meansTo own an expensive home, a yacht, and a limousine, you need to be a man of means.opulenceDicken contrasts the opulence of French's nobility with the indigence of her peasants.sumptuousThe car with the leather upholstery and thick rugs is beautiful but a bit sumptuous for a person of my simple tastes.apprehensiveSeveral apprehensive parents telephoned the school when their children were late in getting home from museum trip.cowerBrave men defy tyrants, instead of cowering before them.cravenA hero risks his life to help others, a craven runs from the scene.dastardlyIt was dastardly of the captain to desert the sinking vessel and leave the passengers to fend for themselves.intimidateThe younger boy would not have given the playing field so quickly if the older boys had not intimidated them.timidIf the other team challenges us, we should accept. Let's not be so timid.trepidationI thought Carol would be nervous when she made the speech, but she delivered it without trepidation.audacious:Risking serious injury, the outfielder made an audacious leap against the concrete wall to caught the powerfully hit ball. After we had been waiting for about 20 minutes, an audacious freshman came along and tried to get in at the head of the line.Dauntless:the frightened sailors wanted to turn back, but their dauntless leader urged them to sail on.exploit:Rober. E. Peary won worldwide fame for his exploits as an Arctatic explorer.fortitude:The captain showed remarkable fortitude in continuing to lead their men despite painful wound.indomitable:Columbus had an indomitable belief that he would reach the land by sailing west.plucky:Though defeated, our team put up a plucky defense against taller and huskier opponents.rash:When a person loses his temper, he may say something rash and regret it afterwards.accede:when I asked my English teacher if I might change my topic, she readily acceded to my request.accord:Though we are in accord on what our goals should be, but we differ on the means for achieving them.compact: The states bordering the Delaware River have entered into a compact for sharing its water.compatible:Miss Evans knows that Authur and I can not be on the same committee. We are not compatible.compromise :At first, the union and the manager were far apart on wages, but they finally came to a compromise.conform:when a new style of clothes appears, women usually hasten to confrom it.consistent:By bringing up an unrelated matter, you are not being consistent with your previous statement that you should stick to the topic.correspond:The rank of the second leiutenant in the Army corresponds to that of ensign in the Navy.Dovetail:Gilbert's skill as a writer dovetailed Sullivan's talent as a composer, resulting in the famous Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.reconcile:After our quarrel, my brother and I refused to talk to each other until our Mother reconciled us.relent:The Mayor has banned all lawn sprinkling because of water shortage. However, if the reservoirs fill up, he may relent somewhat.altercation:The teacher halted the altercation by separating two opponents before they could come to blows.antagonize:The official antagonized the leader of his party by accusing him of cowardice.cleavage:Our party hopes to repair the cleavage in its ranks so that it may present a united front in the coming elections.discord:Billy Budd put an end to the discord aboard the right-of-man. He was an excellent peacemaker.discrepancy:Eighty students came to the dance but only seventy-four tickets were collected. Can you account for this discrepancy?dissent:The vote approving the amendment was far from unanimous; six members dissented.embroil:Motorists who disregard traffic regulations eventually become embroiled with law.estrange:A quarrel over inheritance estranges brothers for many years.friction:At the budget hearing, there was considerable friction between supporters and opponents of higher taxes.irreconcilable:It is doubtful that anyone can make peace between estranged partners. They have become irreconcilable.litigation:Some business disputes can be settled out the court; others require variance:Cythia is an independent thinker. Her opinions are often at variance with those of the rest of the class.wrangle:When I left, two neighbors were quarreling noisily. When I returned an hour later, they were still wranglingcompulsory:State law makes attendance at school compulsory for children of certain ages.entail:Can you family afford the extra expense a larger apartment entails?essence:The union and management held a lengthy meeting without getting to the essence of the men's dissatisfaction-low wages.gratuitous:were it not for your gratuitous intervention, the children would have quickly settled their dispute.imperative:If you have failed a subject you need for graduation, it is imperative that you go to summer school.incumbent:He felt incumbent on him to pay for the window since he had hit the ball that broke it.indispensable:We can do without luxuries and entertainment. However, food, clothing and, shelter are indispensable.necessitate:Mr.Gans told Helen that her refusal to work necessitates his sending for her parents.oblige:If your friend were in trouble, wouldn't you feel oblige to go his help?obviate.Karen has agreed to lend me the book I need. This obviates my trip to the library.prerequisite:A mark of a least 75% in Basic Art is a prerequisite for Advanced Art.pressing:Before preparing tomorrow's party, I have some more pressing matters to attend to , such as finishing reports.superfluous:Since we have enough food for the picnic, please don't bring any because it will only be superfluous.forearm:Henry protected his face for George's blows by raising his forearms.forebear:ant: descendant; His forebears migrated to American for Ireland.foreboding:Before the day of the accident, I had a foreboding that something would go wrong.forecast:Have you listened to the weather forecast for tomorrow?forefront:In combat the officer was always standing in the forefront of the attack, leading his men on to victory.foregoing:Carefully review the foreboding chapter before reading any further.foremost:Did you know Benjamin Franklin was one of the foremost inventors of the eighteenth century?foreshadow:Our defeat in the championship game was foreshadowed by the injuries to two of our star players in a previous game.foresight:Foresight is better than hindsight..foreword:Before Chapter I, there is a brief foreword in which the author explains why he wrote the book.misbelief:People thought the Earth was flat until Columbus corrected that misbelief.misdeed:The wrongdoer was punished for his misdeed by a fine and imprisonment.misfire:The bear escaped when the hunter's rifle misfired.misgiving:Dad has no misgivings when my mother takes the wheels because she is an excellent driver.mishap:Right after the accident, each driver blamed the other for the mishap.mislay:Yesterday I mislaid the biology book, it took me about a half of hour to find it.mislead: Some traffic signs are so confusing that they mislead the traveler.outputThe output of the average American factory worker is steadily increasing.outrunWe scored a touchdown when Joel caught a forward pass and outran his pursuersoutspokenMarty sometimes hurts others when he criticizes their work because he is too outspoken.outwitSherlock Homes manages to outwit the cleverest criminals.overbearingWhen the monitor gave too many orders, the teacher scolded him for being overbearingoverburdenIt would overburden me to have a piano lesson Thursday because I have so much homework on that day.overconfidentI was sure of passing that I wasn't going to study, but Dad advised me not to be overconfident.overdoseDon't take more medicine the doctor ordered; an overdose may be dangerous.overestimateJoe underestimated the capacity of the bus when he thought it could hold of 60; it has room for only 48.overgenerousBecause the service was poor; Mom thought Dad was overgenerous in leaving the waiter a 15% tipovershadowGary's errors in the field overshadowed his good work at the plate.oversupplyWe have a shortage of unskilled technicians but an oversupply of unskilled workers.overwhelmThe department store guards were nearly overwhelmed by the crowds of shoppers waiting for the sale to begin.unabridgedThough an abridged dictionary is convenient to use, it contains far fewer definitions than an unabridged dictionary.unbiasedDon't ask the mother of a contestant to serve as a judge because it may be hard for her to remain unbiased.unconcernThe audience was breathless with anxiety during the daring tightrope act, though the acrobats themselves performed with seeming unconcern for their own safety.undeceiveIf you think I can get Mr.Owen to hire you because he is my cousin,let me undeceive you. I have no influence with him.ungagWith the dictator's downfall, the censorship decrees were abolished and the press was ungagged.unnerveThe unsportsmanlike noises of the fans so unnerved our star player that he missed two foul shots in a row.unquenchableMany teenagers have an unquenchable thirst for adventure stories, they read one after anotherunscrambleThe previous secretary had mixed up the files so badly that it took my sister about a week to unscramble them.unshackleWhen mutinous sailors were put in irons in the older days, nobody was allowed to unshackle themunwaryAn unwary pedestrian is more like to be struck by a car than those who looks both ways and crosses with the light,underbrushOn its way through the dense jungle, the patrol had to be constantly wary of enemy soldiers concealed in the underbrush.undergraduateMost undergraduates took four years to earn a degree, but some achieve it sooner by attending summer sessions.underpaymentIf too little deducted from Dad's weekly wages for the income tax, it results in an underpayment at the end of the year.underprivilegedThe underprivileged child from the crowded slum tenement has more problems to overcome than a child from the middle-class home.underscoreWhen we take notes, the teacher wants us to underscore the items that are especially important.undersellWhen discount houses tried to undersell the department stores, the latter reduced prices too, and adopted the slogan " We will not be undersold".undersignedAmong the undersigned in the petition to the governor were some of the most prominent persons in the state.understatementFrank's remark that he was "slightly bruised" in the accident was an understatement, he suffered two fractured ribs.understudyWhen the star is recuperating from her illness,her role will be played by her understudyupcomingThe management will be glad to email you its " Future Attractions" leaflet which contains news of upcoming films.upgradeto qualify for better jobs, many employees attend evening courses where they can upgrade their skills.upheavalThe prime minister's proposal for new taxes created such an upheaval that his government fell.upkeepMy neighbor traded his own car because the upkeep had become too high.uprightWhen knocked off his feet, the boxer waited till the count of nine before returning to the upright position.upstartWhen the new representative entered the legislature, some older members received him coldly because they regarded him as an upstart.uprootThe love of liberty is so firmly embedded in men's hearts that no tyrant can hope to uproot it.upturnMost merchants report a slowdown in the sales for October, but confidently upturn with the approach of Christmas.adaptPeople who work at night have to adapt themselves to sleeping in the daytime Clarence Dạy's book LIFE WITH FATHER was adapted for the stage.addictedYou won't become addicted to smoking if you refuse cigarettes when they are offered.adequateThe student who arrived ten minutes late did not have adequate time to finish the test.adherentYou can count on Martha to support in your campaign for reelection. She is one of your most loyal adherents.adjacentThe island of Cuba is adjacent to Florida.adjoinMexico adjoins The United States.adjournThe judge adjourned the court to the following Monday.adventThe Weather Bureau gave adequate warning of the advent of the hurricane.adversaryBefore the contest began, the champion shook hands with his adversary.adverseBecause of the adverse reviews, the producer announced that the play will close with tonight's performance.enervateIrma was so enervated by the broiling sun that she nearly fainted.evokeThe suggestion to lengthen the school year evoked the considerable opposition.invokeRefusing to answer the question, the witness invoked the Fifth Amendment, which protects a person from being compelled to testify against himself.exciseWith a penknife, he peeled the apple and excised the wormy part.inciseThe letters on the monument had been incised by a chisel.exclusiveThe exclusive club does not readily accept newcomers. Before the game, each team had exclusive use of the field for 10-minute practice period.inclusiveThe film will be shown from August 22 to 24, inclusive, the total of three days.inhibitEllen told the child not to cry, but he could not inhibit his tear.expelExpelled from the university because of the poor grades, the student applied for readmission the following term.impelGreg's low mark in the midterm impelled him to study harder for the final.implicateThe accused is not only guilty part; two other are were also implicated.impugnThe treasurer should not have been offended when asked for a financial report. No one was impugning his honesty.incarcerateOn July 14, 1789, the people of Paris freed the prisoners incarcerated in the Bastilles.inscribeThe name of the winner will be inscribed on the medal.insurgentThe King promised to pardon any insurgent who would lay down his arms. General Washington led the insurgent forces in the Revolutionary War.FatigueWhy not take the elevator? Climbing up the stairs will fatigue you.InfallibleWhen Phill disputes my answer or I question his,we often take it to our math teacher. We consider her judgement infallible.pilferThe shoplifter was apprehended with a number of pilfered articles in his possession.provinceIf your brother misbehaves in school, you have no right to punish him; that is your parent's province.reflect:I could have had given a much better answer if I had had more time to reflect.ApprehendNow I see how foolish I was to apprehend the outcome of the test. I passed it easily.cleave:Some of the inhabitants are hostile to new ways; they cleave to the customs and traditions of the past.culpritThe last time we were late for the party, I was the culprit. I was not ready when you called for me.facetiousBob meant it when he said he was quitting the team. He was not being facetious.insolubleScientists are finding solutions to many problems that up to now are insoluble. Salt dissolves in water, but sand is insoluble.abateThe water shortage is abating, but it is a matter of concern. Mike's close defeat in tennis tournament has not abated his zeal for the game.accordIf both sides to the dispute can be brought to the conference table, they can come to an accord. Check to see if your definition accords with the one in the dictionary.aggravateif you sunburn itches, don't scratch; that will aggravate it.belligerentBert still likes to settle his arguments with his fists. When will he learn that it's childish to be so belligerent ?conspicuousAmong the Manhattan's skyscrapers, the Empire State Building is conspicuous for its superior height.craftThe weavers of the Oriental rugs are famous for their superior craft. The Greek took Troy by craft; they use the trick of the wooden horse.deterThe heavy rain did not deter people from coming to the school play. Nearly every seat was occupied.fictitiousThe suspect said he lived at 234 Green Street, but he later admitted it was a fictitious address.miniatureShe has a miniature stapler in her purse. It takes up a little roomimmaculateThe curtains were spotless; the tablecloth was immaculate, too.quintetBecause it has five players, a basketball team is often called a quintetdefianceThe union showed defiance of the court order against the strike by calling the workers off their jobs.infractionParking at the bus stop is illegal. Motorists committing this infraction are heavily fined.insubordinateDo as Mother says. If you are insubordinate, Father will probably hear.insurrectionTroops had to be used in 1794 to put down an insurrection.malcontentThe stoppage was caused by malcontents who felt they had been ignored when the promotions were made.perverseThough I had carefully explained the shorter routes to him, the perverse youngster came by the longer way.sedition:the author of the pamphlet advocating the overthrow of the government was arrested for sedition.transgressRonald's previous record showed he had been an obedient student and had never transgressed school regulations.trespassThe owner erected a "Keep Off" sign to discourage strangers from trespassing on his land.acquiesceThough I wasn't enthusiastic about Tom's plan to go fishing, I acquiesced in it because there seemed there was nothing else to doallegianceEvery school day, millions of children "pledge allegiance to the United States of America and the republic for which it stands."deferHusbands as a rule do not decide on the colors of home furnishings, but defer to their wives in these matters.docileHe is easy to teach, but his brother is not so docile.meekOnly two of the girls protested when ordered off the field. The rest were too meek to complain.pliableWe tried to get Joe to change his mind, but he was not pliable. Perhaps you can influence him.defaultThe Royals must be on the playing ground before 4pm. If they do not appear, they will lose the game by default. The finance company took away Gee's car when he defaulted on the payments.heedlessBefore his injury, he used to jump from the stairs, heedless of the "No Jumping" sign. Now he pays attention to it.inadvertentUnfortunately, I made an inadvertent remark about Irma's failure while he was present.neglectSome of the students of the play neglected their studies during the rehearsals, but after the performance they caught up quickly. For leaving his post, the guard was charged with neglect of duty.remissThe owner of stolen car was himself remiss. He left the keys in the vehicle.averTwo eyewitnesses averred they had seen the defendant at the scene.veracitySince you have lied to us in the past, you should not wonder that we doubt your veracity.verdictthe hung jury is one that has been unable to reach a verdict.verifySo far, the charges have been neither disproved or verifiedveritableAs the pretended heirs of Peter Wills were disposing of the fortune, the veritable heirs arrived.slovenlyYou would not expect anyone so neat in her personal appearance to be slovenly in her housekeeping.discreetYou were discreet not to say anything about our plans when Herry was here. He can't keep a secret.heedOur teacher said that we might have a test but I didn't heed her. That's why I was unprepared.meticulousBefore signing a contract, one should read carefully, including the fine print. This is one case where it pays to be meticulous.scrupulousMr.Brooks refused to be a judge because his wife'nice was a contestant. He is very scrupulous.verityThat smoking is injurious to health is a scientifically established verity.scrutinizeThe guard at the gate scrutinized his pass before letting him in, but he just glanced at mine.solicitudeMy brother's solicitude over getting into college ended when he received the word that he had been accepted.vigilanceThe night watchman who apprehended the thief was praised for his vigilance.waryGeneral Braddock might not have been defeated if he had been wary of an ambush.proficientWhen I fell behind in French, the teacher asked one of the most proficient students to help me.profuseDespite a large income, the actor has saved very little because he is a profuse spender.ProjectHuge streams of water, projected by the fireboat's powerful engine, fell on the blazing pier.propelJet-propelled planes travel at very high speeds.proponentAt the budget hearing, both the proponents and opponents of the tax increase will be able to present their viewssubmitThough he boasted he would never be taken alive, the outlaw submitted without a struggle when the police arrived.tractable:For his cabinet, the dictator wanted tractable men. Therefore, he appointed no one whom he could not control.protrudeKeep your feet under your desk; do not let them protrude into the aisle.provoke:Jeff's account of his experiences on a farm provoked much laughter. There would have been no fight if you hadn't provoked your brother by calling him names.amicableCharlotte is an amicable child; everybody likes her.amityWe must look ahead when the dispute is over and amity is restored.amorousFrom the famous balcony scene, the amorous Romeo expresses undying love for Juliet.enamouredAn English settler became enamoured of the beautiful princess and married her.discontentDan was discontent at his French mark; he had expected at least 10 points more.discreditThe parents discredited the child's story since he was in the habit of telling falsehoods.disintegrateThe explosion disintegrated an entire wing of the factory.dispassionate .For a dispassionate account of how the fight started, as a neutral observer -not a participantdisrepairThe bicycle I lent Tom had been in good condition, but he returned it in disrepair.dissentWhen the matter was put to a vote, 29 agreed and 4 dissented.dissidentThe compromise was welcomed by all the strikers except a small dissident group who felt that the raises were too small.contrabandcustoms officials examined the luggage of the suspected smuggler but found no contraband.counterThe student's plan to drop out of school ran counter to his parents' wishes.contraveneBy invading the neutral nation, the dictator contravened his earlier pledge to guarantee its independence.countermandThe teacher ordered the students to go to the end of the line, but the teacher countermanded the order.incontrovertibleThe suspect's fingerprints on the safe were considered incontrovertible evidence that he had participated in the robbery.intercedeMy brother would have lost the argument if Dad hadn't interceded for him.interceptWe gained possession of the ball when Russ intercepted a forward pass.interlinearIt is difficult to make interlinear notes if the space between lines is very small.interludeBetween World War II and the Korean War, there was a five-year interlude of peace.intermediaryFor his role as intermediary in helping to end the Russo-Japanese War, Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize.intermissionDuring the intermission between the first and second acts, you will have a chance to purchase refreshments.intersectBroadway intersects Seventh Avenue at Times Square.interurbanThe only way to get to the next town is by automobile or taxi; there is no interurban bus.deposeDid the king abdicate or was he deposed?imposeCleaning up after the job is the repairman's responsibility. Don't let him impose it on you.superimposeToday's snowfall superimposed a fresh two inches on yesterday's accumulation.transposeThere is a misspelled word on your paper "strenght". Correct it by transposing the last two letters.conscriptWhen there are not enough volunteers for the armed forces, the government conscripts additional meninscriptionThe inscription on Paul's medal reads " For excellence in English"prescribeThe law prescribes that aliens may not vote. Her physician prescribed some pills, a light diet and plenty of rest.benedictionBefore beginning his difficult journey, the young man visited his parents to receive their benediction.maledictionWith her dying breath, Queen Dido pronounced a malediction on Aeneas and all his descendants.benefactorThe museum could not have been built without the gift of a million dollars by a wealthy benefactor.malefactorShortly after the crime, the malefactor was apprehended and turned over to the police.beneficiaryThe poor and the needy will be the beneficiaries of your gift to the community fund.benevolentA benevolent employer has a sincere interest in the welfare of his employees.malevolentDavid Balfour visits his malevolent uncle who tries to kill him.maladjustedCarlo was maladjusted in the early stages, not because of poor intelligence but because he couldn't speak English.maliceI suspect Ronnie stripped me so that I wouldn't be able to play tomorrow. He did it no as a joke but out of malice.maltreatThe two new photographers were attacked by the mob, and their cameras were smashed. It is disgraceful that they were so maltreated.decadentThe decadent downtown section was once a flourishing business district.deciduousMaple, elm, birch and other deciduous trees lose their leaves in the fall.dementedWhoever did this must have been demented, no sane person would have been acted in such a way.demoteFor being absent without leave, the corporal was demoted to private.depreciateAutomobiles depreciate rapidly; a $2500 car is worth less than $2000 with a year of purchase. The building superintendent feels depreciated if you refer to him as the "janitor".DespiseHe was despised by his fellow Americans for betraying his country.Deviate:This teacher notifies the parents when a student neglects his homework, and he will not deviate his rule in your case.SecedeWhen Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union.SecessionSouth Caroline's secession was imitated by ten other states and led to the formation of the Confederacy.SegregateIn most schools. boys and girls attend the same classes, except in health education, where they are segregated.affinityBecause they share the same language and ideals, Americans and Englishmen have a deep affinity for one another.confineI will confine my remarks to the cause of the War in 1812, the next speak will discuss its results.definitive# tentative, provisional Remember that your answer will be treated as definitive. You will not be permitted to change it.finaleEvery skit in our class show was loudly applauded from the opening scene to the finale.fluidAir, water, molasses and milk are fluids. During November, the military situation remained fluid, with advances and retreated by both sides.cajoleto make somebody do something by talking to them and being very nice to them synonym coax cajole somebody (into something/into doing something) He cajoled me into agreeing to do the work. cajole something out of somebody I managed to cajole his address out of them.fluxWhen prices are in the state of flux, many buyers delay purchases until the conditions are more settled.influxThe discovery of gold in California in 1848 caused a large influx of settlers from the East.degenerateBut for the skill of the presiding officer, the debate degenerated into an exchange of insults.engenderName-calling engenders hatred.progenitorThe Bibles states that Adam was a progenitor of human race.regenerateThe new manager regenerated the losing team and made it a strong contender for first place.aggregateThe aggregate strength of allies was impressive, though individuals some were quite weak.aggregationAt the airport, the homecoming champions were welcomed by the aggregation of admirers.congregationThe minister addressed the congregation on the importance of brotherhood.gregariousExcept for hermits and recluses, who shun company, most people are gregarious.SegregationThe warden believes in segregation from the first offender to hardened criminalsAdhereApply the stickers according to direction , or it will not adhereCohereI glued together the fragments of the vase, but they did not cohereCoherenceIf the relationship between the first sentence and what follows it is not clear, the paragraph lacks coherence.CohesionThere can be no real cohesion in an alliance if the parties have little in common.BlunderHave you ever committed the blunder of mailing a letter without a postage stampDispelThe two officers were commended for their skill in dispelling the mob and preventing violenceDiminutiveTo an observer in an airplane high over the city​, the largest buildings seem diminutiveDormantIn early spring,new buds begin to appear on shrubs and trees that have been dormant all winterExemptThe three students are exempt from the spelling test, they got 100% in the original test.succumbsuccumb to something His career was cut short when he succumbed to cancer. He finally succumbed to Lucy's charms and agreed to her request. She succumbed to the temptation of another drinkRecoil:He recoiled at the thought of singing in the amateur show, but he went through it because he had promised to participateReflection:When a question is complicated, don't give the answer that comes to mind. Take time for reflection Yesterday's defeat was no reflection on our players;they did their very best.Capsize:When Sam's canoe capsized, I swam over to help him turn it right side upContend:Every spring, baseball writers try to predict two teams that will contend in the next world series.DivulgeYesterday our teacher read us a composition without divulging the name of the writer.Incense:.Some of the members were so incensed by the way Jack opened the meeting that they walked right outMagnifyThe bacteria in your textbook are greatly magnified, their real size is considerably smaller.RummageSomeone must have been rummaged my desk; everything in it is in disorder.Puncture: My neighbor swept a nail off his curb, and later it punctured one of his own tires.traverseThe Trans-Siberian Railroad completed in 1905, traverse the Asian continent.velocity:Do you know that light travels at a velocity of 186000 miles a second?surmount:At the end of the third quarter, the visitors were ahead by 18 points, a lead that our team was unable to surmount.vicinity:Lost: Black cat answering to "Blackie" Vicinity of Main Street and First Avenue.Vocation:Ruth is going to be a nurse..Bob plans to enter teaching. I, however, have not yet chosen a vocation.volitionDid your employer dismiss you,or did you leave of your own volition?imperilThe fishing vessel was imperiled by high winds, but it managed to reach port safely.lineageIf you study Franklin D.Roossevelt's lineage, you will find that he was descended from a Dutch ancestor who settled in American in 1638.presentlyWe won't have to wait long for our bus. It will be here presentlyopinionatedIt is hard to reason with an opinionated person; He won't change his mind even when you give him objective evidence.adroitThe adroit passing enabled us to score four touchdowns.ambidextrousRuss is an ambidextrous hitter; he can bat right-handed or left-handed.dexterityYou can't expect an apprentice to have the same dexterity as a master craftsman.aliasInspector Javert discovered that Monsieur Madeleine was not the mayor's real name but an alias for Jean Valjean, an ex-convict. Jean Valjean, alias Monsieur Madeleine was arrested by Inspector JavertclandestineBefore that Revolutionary War, an underground organisation, known as the Sons of Liberty, used to hold clandestine meetings in Boston.latentA good education will help you discover and develop your latent talents.lurkGeneral Braddock's troops, marching in column, were easy targets for the Indians lurking behind trees.secludeTo find a quiet place to study, Bruce had to seclude himself in the attic.stealthyThe burglar must have been very stealth if he was able to get past the two watchmen without being noticed.appriseThe magazine has apprised its readers of an increase in rates beginning January 1.avowalThe white flag of surrenders is an avowal of defeat.elicitBy questioning the witness, the attorney elicited that the fact that it was raining at the time of the accident.enlightenThe new student was going to in the wrong direction until someone enlightened him that his room was at the end of the hall.manifestMy art teacher told my parents that I have failed to manifest any interest in her subject. It is now manifest that, if I do no do my work, I will fall the course.overtThe teacher didn't believe that Ned was annoying me until she saw him in the overt act of pulling my hair.colossalThe game will be played in a colossal sports arena with a seating capacity of 600000 peoplecommodiousEven during changes of classes, there is no crowding because the halls and stairways are commodious.gamutAfter the test,I thought at first I had done very well, then quite well and finally poorly. I ran the gamut from confidence to despair.infiniteIn our science lesson tomorrow, we will consider whether space is infinite and boundedinfinitesimalIf there is any salt in this soup, it must be infinitesimal. I can't taste it.inordinateAlex kept my book for such an ordinate length of time that I shall never lend him anything again.magnitude .Shopping for clothes can be a small matter for some , but a problem of the greatest magnitude for othersinflateSince the football has lost air, we shall need a pump to inflate it.iotaIf you make the same mistakes again, despite all my warnings, I will not have one iota of sympathy for you.picayuneThe trouble with your studying is that you spend too much time on picayune details and not enough on the really important matters.pittanceAt those low wages, few apply for the job. Who want to work for a pittance.punyThe building dwarfs the surrounding buildings. By comparison to it, they seem puny.superabundanceOur committee does not need any more help. We have a superabundance of helpers.debilitate# invigorate The patient was debilitated by the fever that he lacked the strength to sit updecrepit# sturdy He went past the redcoats on a horse that looked decrepit and about to collapse.dilapidatedUp the road was an abandoned farmhouse, partially in ruins, and near it a barn, even more dilapidated.restoreEnervated by the heat, we rested under a shady tree until our strength was restored.flimsyJudy understands algebra well, but I have only a flimsy grasp of the subject.frailTo be an astronaut, you must be in a robust health. It is not an occupation for a frail person.incapacitateRuth will be absent today. She is incapacitated by a sore throat.infirmityOn leaving the hospital, the patient felt almost too weak to walk, but he soon overcame this infirmity.bulwarkFor centuries the British regarded their navy as their principal bulwark against invasion.CitadelThe fortified city of Singapore was once considered unconquerable. In 1942, however, this citadel fell to the Japanese.CogentExcuses for not handing work in on time vary. Some are flimsy, as, for example, " I left it at home". Others are more cogent, such as a physician's notes.DynamicIf you elect Audrey, you may be sure she will present our views forcefully and energetically. She is a very dynamic speaker.formidableOur hopes for an easy victory sank when our opponents took the field. They were much taller, huskier and looked formidable.forteI am better than Jack in English and social studies but not in math; that is his forte.impregnableBefore World War II, the French regarded their Maginot Line as an impregnable bulwark against a German invasion.invigorateIf you are enervated by the heat, try a swim in the cool ocean. It will invigorate you.tenaciousAfter the dog got the ball, I tried to dislodge it from her tenacious jaws, but I couldn't.vehementYour protest was too mild. If it had been more vehement, the dealer might have paid attention to itvigorThe robust young pitcher performed with his usual vigor for seven innings, but he weakened in the eighth and was removed from the game.withdraw .Tom is my principal backer. If he withdraws his support, I don't see how I can be electedwithdrawalMy uncle paid for his vacation trip by making a withdrawal from his bank account.withdrawnWe talked to the neighbor's youngster and tried to be friendly, but he didn't say anything; he seemed to be withdrawn.withholdPlease don't interrupt me. If you have something to say, withhold it until I have finished speaking.withholding tax.Your employer is required to deduct a certain amount from your salary as a withholding tax payable to the federal governmentwithstandThe walls of a dam must be strong enough to withstand tremendous water pressure.NotwithstandingNotwithstanding their advantage of height, the visiting players were unable to beat our basketball team.abdicateThe aging king abdicated his throne and went into retirement.abductThe Greeks attacked Troy to recover Helen, who had been abducted by the Trojan prince Paris.abhorJanet is doing her best to pass English because she abhors the thought of having to repeat it in summer school.abrasionThe automobile is a total wreck but the driver luckily escaped with minor cuts and abrasion.abruptToday's art lesson came to an abrupt end when the gongs sounded for a fire drill.abscondA wide research is underway for the manager who absconded with $100000 of his employer's funds.daybreakthe time of day when light first appears synonym dawn We left before daybreak.paralyzeparalyse somebody to make somebody unable to feel or move all or part of their body The accident left him paralysed from the waist down.absolveThe fact that you were absent when the assignment was given does not absolve you from doing homework. Of the three suspects, two were found guilty and the third was absolved.absorbingThat was an absorbing book. It held my interest from the beginning to end.abstainMy dentist said I would have fewer cavities if I abstained from eating candy.averseI am in favor of the dance, but I am averse to holding it on May 25.avertThe mayor promised to do everything in his power to avert a strike by newspaper employees.avocationMy uncle, an accountant, composes music as an avocation.perennialAuthors have come and gone, but Shakespeare has remained a perennial favorite. Perennials bloom year after year.perforate.The physician said the tack had gone through Baby's shoe and sock without perforating her skinpermeateAt breakfast, the aroma of freshly brewed coffee permeates the kitchen and dining room.perplexI need help the fourth problem; it perplexes me.persist#desist The teacher told Eric to stop whispering. When he persisted, she sent him to the dean. The rain was supposed to end in the morning, but it persisted through the afternoon and evening.Pertinent# irrelevant Stick to the point; don't give the information that is not pertinent.perturbSandra's parents were perturbed when they learned she had failed two subjects.precedeDid you report follow or precede Jane's ?precludeA prior engagement precludes my coming to your party.precociousIf Nany's three-year-old brother can read, he must be a precocious child.preconceivedMy preconceived dislike for the book disappeared when I read a few chapters.prefabricatedThe prefabricated house was quickly erected by putting together large sections previously constructed at a company.prematureSince just less than a half of the votes have been counted, my opponent's claims of victory are premature.premediatedThe jury decided that the blow was struck at the time of panic and had been premeditated.presumeNineteen of the sailors have been rescued. One is missing and presumed dead.previewLast night, my parents attended a preview of a play scheduled to be open next Tuesday.animositySomeday the animosities that led the war will be replaced by amity.animusAlthough Howard defeated me in the election, I bear no animus towards him; we are good friends.equanimityIf you become extremely upset when you lose a game, it is a sign that you lack equanimity.magnanimousThe first time I was late, Miss O'Neil excused me with the warning that she would not be magnanimous the next time.unanimityIn almost every discussion there is bound to some disagreement. Don't expect unanimity.unanimousExcept for one student, who voted "no", the class was unanimous in holding the party.aboundOur nation abounds in opportunities for well-educated young men and women. Fish abound in the waters off Newfoundland.inundateOn Election Night, the victor's offices were inundated by congratulatory messages.appendIf you hand in your report late, append the note explaining the reason for the delay.impendingAfter the first flash of lightning, people scurried for the shelter from the impending storm.pendantThe pendant dangling from the chain around her neck looked like a medal, but it was a watchpendingHas a decision been reached on a date for the game, or is it still pending? Barbara agreed to conduct the meeting pending the election of a permanent president.suspendShe wore a green pendant suspended from a silver chain. Train service will be suspended from midnight to 4am to permit repairs.suspenseIf you have seen the marks, please tell me whether I passed or failed; don't keep me in suspense.assimilateThe letter n in the prefix in is often assimilated the following letter. For example, "in"plus "legible" becomes "illegible". A bright student assimilates knowledge rapidly.ddissimilarThe gloves are not a pair; they look quite dissimilar.simulateNacy was the star of the show; she simulated the bewildered mother effectively.desolateAfter the war, the villagers hope to return their desolate homes. After 5:30am, the normally crowded intersection looks desolate.soliloquyWhat the actor says in a soliloquy is heard by no one except the audience.solitaryA hermit leads to a solitary existence.solitudeThough I like company, there are times when I prefer solitude.absoluteA democratic ruler is restricted by a constitution and courts, but a dictator has absolute power.dissolutionWhen President Lincoln took office, the Union faced imminent dissolution.resolveA witness provided the clue that resolved the mystery.solubleSugar is soluble in water Someone would have found the answer by now if the problem were soluble.solventIn the salt water solution, the water is the solvent, and the salt is the solute. the examiners found the bank solvent, much to the relief of its depositors.ImproviseDid the entertainer prepare his jokes before the program, or improvise them as he went alongreviseBefore handing in your composition , be sure to revise it carefully.anachronismIt is an anachronism to say that William Shakespeare "typed" his manuscripts.chronicleOne of the earliest accounts of King Authur occurs in a 12th-century chronicle of the kings of Britain by Geoffrey of MonmouthchronologyBruce named all the Presidents, but he made an error in chronology,synchronizeThe clocks in the library need to be synchronized; one is a minute and a half behind the other.kleptomaniaThe billionaire who was caught shoplifting was found to be suffering from kleptomania.anticipateto expect something anticipate something We don't anticipate any major problems. Our anticipated arrival time is 8.30blura shape that you cannot see clearly, often because it is moving too fast His arm was a rapid blur of movement as he struck. Everything is a blur when I take my glasses off.detectThe tests are designed to detect the disease early. an instrument that can detect small amounts of radiationindiscerniblethat cannot be seen, heard or understood The differences are almost indiscernible.manoeuvera movement performed with care and skill a complicated/skilful manoeuvre You will be asked to perform some standard manoeuvres during your driving test. The racecar driver struggled to maneuver his car into first place on the last lap.peripheralnot as important as the main aim, part, etc. of something peripheral information matters of peripheral concern Do not spend too much time on the peripheral questions because they are only worth ten percent of the test grade. Despite the loss of a few peripheral functions, the airplane will still be able to land safelyarraygroup or collection of things or people, often one that is large or impressive Frank was impressed by the wide array of appetizers at Joe's wedding, although he did not partake of any of them because of his diet.terrestrialliving on the land or on the ground, rather than in water, in trees or in the air Because of the cool climate, many terrestrial insects live in the soil.diurnal# nocturnal during the day Unlike most other bats, this species is diurnal.strayto move away from the place where you should be, without intending to He strayed into the path of an oncoming car.diluteto make something weaker or less effective Large classes dilute the quality of education that children receive.freightgoods, but not passengers, that are carried from one place to another, by ship, aircraft, train, or truck, or the system of transporting these goods: The ship carries both freight and passengers.juvenile deliquencythe problem of young people who are not yet adults committing crimestringentstringent air quality regulations very strict and that must be obeyed Licences are only granted under the most stringent conditionsrugged(of land) wild and not even; not easy to travel over: rugged landscape/terrain/hills/cliffsflairflair for something a natural ability to do something well He has a flair for languages.sabotagesabotage something to prevent something from being successful or being achieved, especially deliberately Protesters failed to sabotage the peace talks. The rise in interest rates sabotaged any chance of the firm's recovery.grandeurBecause I wanted to spend the night in a room of grandeur, I paid several thousand dollars to stay in the hotel's presidential suite.discruptivecausing problems, noise, etc. so that something cannot continue normally She had a disruptive influence on the rest of the class.intrinsicbeing an extremely important and basic characteristic of a person or thing: The strength of a person's intrinsic drive is what determines whether or not that individual will have success in lifeplodto work slowly and continuously, but without imagination, enthusiasm, or interest: For years, he's plodded away at the same dull routine job. Alex is just plodding along at school, making very little progress I'll try not to bore you with lots of plodding details.fringethe outer edge of an area or a group on the northern fringe of the city fringe something to form a border around something The beach was fringed by coconut palms. Her eyes were grey, fringed by long dark lashesstressorsomething that causes stress (= great worry or emotional difficulty): Constant noise can be a stressor.resilientable to feel better quickly after something unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc. He'll get over it—young people are amazingly resilient. These plants are very resilient to rough handling.swinga change from one opinion or situation to another; the amount by which something changes He is liable to abrupt mood swings (= for example from being very happy to being very sad).prolificproducing a lof of things producing many works, etc. a prolific author a prolific goalscorer prolific riversvouchvouch for something (formal) to say that you believe that something is true or good because you have evidence for it synonym confirm I was in bed with the flu. My wife can vouch for that.alternatewhen one thing comes after another; fluctuate Instead of choosing one pain reliever, Judy decided to alternate between Aspirin and Tylenol.Carcassthe body of a dead animal, especially a large one that is soon to be cut up as meat or eaten by wild animals: Vultures flew around in the sky waiting to pick at the rotting carcass of the deerendeavoran attempt to do something, especially something new or difficult Please make every endeavour to arrive on time He endeavoured in vain to escape the situation. The buyer should always endeavour to negotiate terms..honeto make something perfect or completely suitable for its purpose The tennis player practices several hours a day to hone her skills. Because Jessica wants to hone her cake baking ability, she can usually be found in the kitchen. The apprentice will hone his mechanical expertise under a mentor and then open his own garage.nichea job or position that is very suitable for someone, especially one that they like: He has carved/made a niche for himself as a financial advisor.Catastrophic=devastating =disastrous causing a lot of problems for peopleSYNONYM disastrousa catastrophic failure/collapse/defeatDisparatedifferent in every way: The two cultures were so utterly disparate that she found it hard to adapt from one to the other.Inexplicableunable to be explained or understood: For some inexplicable reason, he's decided to cancel the project.InquiryI've been making inquiries about/into the cost of a round-the-world ticket. Inquiry into the matter is pointless - no one will tell you anythingInsulationthe act of covering something to stop heat, sound, or electricity from escaping or entering, or the fact that something is covered in this way: The animal's thick fur provides very good insulation against the arctic cold. Glass fibre is often used as roof insulation.Perseverancecontinued effort and determination: Through hard work and perseverance, he worked his way up to the top.RallySupporters/Opponents of the new shopping development are trying to rally localpeople in favour of/against it. The president has called on the people to rally to/behind the government.eccentrica person who is considered by other people to be strange or unusual Most people considered him a harmless eccentric.susceptibleeasily influenced or harmed by something: She isn't very susceptible to flattery.undergoto experience something that is unpleasant or something that involves a change After the accident, he underwent reconstructive surgery to rebuild his faceunfoldIf a situation or story unfolds, it develops or becomes clear to other people: Like a lot of people, I've watched the events of the last few days unfold on TV.unveilunveil something to show or introduce a new plan, product, etc. to the public for the first time synonym reveal They will be unveiling their new models at the Motor Show.cognitionthe use of conscious mental processes: Young children develop their skills of cognition from their childhood experiences and social interactionscounteractto do something to reduce or prevent the bad or harmful effects of something She liked to keep busy all the time to counteract the feelings of uselessness that overcame her whenever she had nothing to do.dementiaa serious mental disorder caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normallyimpairto damage something or make something worse His age impaired his chances of finding a new job. Emotions can sometimes impair your ability to reason properly.rodentany small animal that belongs to a group of animals with strong sharp front teeth. Mice, rats and squirrels are all rodents.monetaryrelating to the money in a country: monetary policy monetary control The monetary unit of the UK is the pound The court prescribes monetary penalties for traffic infractions that occur within its jurisdictionsuppleable to change quickly and successfully to suit different conditions: She has shown that she has a supple mind. Regular yoga will help you to keep a supple form.assessto judge or decide the amount, value, quality, or importance of something: The insurers will need to assess the flood damage.constructivehaving a useful and helpful effect rather than being negative or with no purpose constructive criticism/suggestions/advice His work involved helping hyperactive children to use their energy in a constructive way.enrichto improve the quality of something, often by adding something to it enrich something The study of science has enriched all our lives. enrich something with something Most breakfast cereals are enriched with vitaminsinquisitiveinquisitiveness wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that annoys people: an inquisitive child an inquisitive mind She could see inquisitive faces looking out from the windows next door.sanctimoniousgiving the impression that you feel you are better and more moral than other people synonym self-righteous a sanctimonious voice I wish she'd stop being so sanctimonious. I'm fed up with his sanctimonious attitudeascertainto find out the true or correct information about something ascertain something It can be difficult to ascertain the facts. ascertain that... I ascertained that the driver was not badly hurt.deemdeem something + noun/adj. | deem something to be something | deem (that)... (formal) (not usually used in the progressive tenses) to have a particular opinion about something synonym consider The evening was deemed a great success. I deem it an honour to be invited.marvela wonderful thing The building is an architectural marvel. The design is a marvel of elegance and simplicity.pertainpertain to somebody | pertain to something (formal) to be connected with something/somebody the laws pertaining to adoption to exist or to apply in a particular situation or at a particular time Living conditions are vastly different from those pertaining in their country of origin. Those laws no longer pertain.upsidethe advantage of a situation: It's annoying that we can't travel until Thursday, but the upside is that tickets are cheaper thenpreservepreserve something to keep a particular quality, feature, etc.; to make sure that something is kept He was anxious to preserve his reputation. Efforts to preserve the peace have failed.dumpdump something to get rid of something you do not want, especially in a place which is not suitable Too much toxic waste is being dumped at sea.afloatfloating on water Somehow we kept the boat afloat. He could not swim and only a life jacket kept him afloat.forcefulexpressing opinions firmly and clearly in a way that persuades other people to believe them synonym assertive a forceful woman/speaker a forceful personalityrampantspreading out of control The epidemic spread with a rampancy that was frightening The rampant spread of epidemic make it difficult to control the disease spread rampantly throughout the regionstandpointHe is writing from the standpoint of someone who knows what life is like in prisonbulkin bulk ​ C1 in large amounts: The office buys paper in bulk to keep down costs. the bulk of sth ​ C1 most of something: In fact, the bulk of the book is taken up with criticizing other works.crippleto cause serious damage to someone or something, making him, her, or it weak and not effective: a global nursing shortage threatens to cripple health care systemslurelure somebody (+ adv./prep.) (disapproving) to persuade or trick somebody to go somewhere or to do something by promising them a reward synonym entice The child was lured into a car but managed to escape. Young people are lured to the city by the prospect of a job and money.rudimentarydealing with only the most basic matters or ideas synonym basic They were given only rudimentary training in the job. His understanding of the language is very rudimentarydwindleto become gradually less or smaller dwindling audiences a dwindling band of supporterssurplusan amount that is extra or more than you need food surpluses Wheat was in surplus that year.curbcurb something to control or limit something, especially something bad synonym check He needs to learn to curb his temper. A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation.rampa slope that joins two parts of a road, path, building, etc. when one is higher than the other Ramps should be provided for wheelchair usersunwieldydifficult to manage The first mechanical clocks were large and rather unwieldy. The old car felt cumbersome and unwieldy.circumspectthinking very carefully about something before doing it, because there may be risks involved synonym cautious He was very circumspect in his financial affairscircumscribecircumscribe something (formal) to limit somebody/something's freedom, rights, power, etc. synonym restrict The power of the monarchy was circumscribed by the new law. They are still highly circumscribed in their authorityimpassible(of a road, an area, etc.) impossible to travel on or through, especially because it is in bad condition or it has been blocked by something The mountain roads are totally impassable to cars in winter. After the storm, many roads were made impassable by fallen trees.prodigiousvery large or powerful and causing surprise or admiration synonym colossal, enormous a prodigious achievement/memory/talent DVDs can store prodigious amounts of information.inflictto make somebody/something suffer something unpleasant inflict something They surveyed the damage inflicted by the storm. The rodent's sharp teeth can inflict a nasty biteubiquitousseeming to be everywhere: Leather is very much in fashion this season, as is the ubiquitous denim. The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of English. The mobile phone, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age.philosophicalIf you are philosophical in your reaction to something that is not satisfactory, you accept it calmly and without anger, understanding that failure and disappointment are a part of life.gimmickan unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy something a promotional/publicity/sales gimmick We don't use gimmicks to sell our products. The promise of lower taxation may have been just an election gimmick to gain votescredentialscredentials (as/for something) the qualities, training or experience that make you suitable to do something She has impeccable credentials as a researcher. He has all the credentials for the job.coarse(of skin or cloth) rough coarse hands/linen opposite smooth, soft The coarseness of the cloth irritated her skin. I can't stand his coarseness and stupidity.conferconfer (with somebody) (on/about something) to discuss something with somebody, consulting sb He wanted to confer with colleagues before reaching a decisionvilifyto say or write unpleasant things about someone or something, in order to cause other people to have a bad opinion of them: vilify somebody/something (as something) | vilify somebody/something (for something/for doing something) He was vilified by the press as a monster.requisitenecessary for a particular purpose She lacks the requisite experience for the job. They were not able to start the meeting until the requisite number of members were presentfrailtyweakness and poor health Increasing frailty meant that she was more and more confined to bed. Despite her frailty she manages to work hardspring upto appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly Play areas for children are springing up all over the place. Opposition groups are springing up like mushroomscenterpiecethe most important item This treaty is the centrepiece of the government's foreign policy. The water lily is obviously the centrepiece of any water garden.encompassencompass something to include a large number or range of things The job encompasses a wide range of responsibilities. The group encompasses all agestokensomething that is a symbol of a feeling, a fact, an event, etc. synonym expression, mark Please accept this small gift as a token of our gratitude. We hope you will accept this book as a small token of our appreciation.excavationthe activity of digging in the ground to look for old buildings or objects that have been buried for a long timeportrayalHis novel is a vivid portrayal of life in a mining community. Much television news gives a negative portrayal of politics.telecastto broadcast something on television The event will be telecast simultaneously to nearly 150 citiesstrave offstave somethingoff(staved, staved) to prevent something bad from affecting you for a period of time; to delay something to stave off hunger The company managed to stave off bankruptcy for another few monthsspatialrelating to space and the position, size, shape, etc. of things in it changes taking place in the spatial distribution of the population the development of a child's spatial awareness (= the ability to judge the positions and sizes of objects)recurto happen many times or to happen again: Water, a symbol of life, recurs as an image throughout her poems. If the symptoms recur, visit your doctor.reroutereroute something to change the route that a road, vehicle, telephone call, etc. normally follows to reroute a road to reroute traffic The flight was rerouted through Singapore. (figurative) A large proportion of the defence budget has been rerouted to educationrerunto show a television programme, film, etc. again: The James Bond movies are always being rerun on television.outperformto do well in a particular job or activity compared to others of a similar type: The company has consistently outperformed its rivals this season.boonsomething that is very helpful and improves the quality of life: Guide dogs are a great boon to the partially sighted.confrontto face, meet, or deal with a difficult situation or person: As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way. It's an issue we'll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is. I thought I would stay calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I got very nervous.massacrethe killing of a large number of people especially in a cruel way the bloody massacre of innocent civilians Nobody survived the massacre.slaughterthe killing of animals for their meat cows taken for slaughter the cruel killing of large numbers of people at one time, especially in a war synonym massacre the wholesale slaughter of innocent peopleheraldherald something to be a sign that something is going to happen These talks could herald a new era of peace. She felt a dull ache in her right temple, heralding a migraine. Bringing the baby home heralds the start of a very different lifestyle.buddingbeginning to develop or become successful a budding artist/writer our budding romance The budding young star is now hot property in Hollywoodheapa lot of something There's heaps of time before the plane leaves. (North American English) I've got a heap of things to do.heirlooma valuable object that has belonged to the same family for many years a family heirloomproceedsproceeds (of/from something) the money that you receive when you sell something or organize a performance, etc.; profits She sold her car and bought a piano with the proceeds. The proceeds of the concert will go to charity.swaysway somebody to persuade somebody to believe something or do something synonym influence He's easily swayed. She wasn't swayed by his good looks or his clever talk. power or influence over somebody Rebel forces hold sway over much of the island. He was quick to exploit those who fell under his sway.garlanda circle of flowers and leaves that is worn on the head or around the neck or is hung in a room as decoration The office was decked with garlands for the party.attributeattribute something to something to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck. to say or believe that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially for saying, writing or painting something attribute something The committee refused to attribute blame without further information. attribute something to somebody This play is usually attributed to Shakespearefamiliarizefamiliarize yourself/somebody (with something) to learn about something or teach somebody about something, so that you/they start to understand it synonym acquaint You'll need time to familiarize yourself with our procedures. The aim of the course was to familiarize students with the uses of the onwork on something to try hard to improve or achieve something You need to work on your pronunciation a bit more. 'Have you sorted out a babysitter yet?' 'No, but I'm working on it.'integralnecessary and important as a part of a whole: He's an integral part of the team and we can't do without him. Bars and terrace cafés are integral to the social life of the cityimmenselyextremely, enormously He was immensely popular in his day. She's an immensely talented young athletepick onto criticize, punish, or be unkind to the same person often and unfairly: He gets picked on by the other boys because he's so small.eruditehaving or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study synonym learned She could turn any conversation into an erudite discussion. She was a well-respected and erudite scholardisconcertinghaving or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study synonym learned She could turn any conversation into an erudite discussion. She was a well-respected and erudite scholaromenacingseeming likely to cause you harm or danger synonym threatening a menacing face/tone At night, the dark streets become menacing.typifytypify something to be a typical example of something clothes that typify the 1960s the new style of politician, typified by the Prime Ministerdramatizedramatize (something) to make something seem more exciting or important than it really is Don't worry too much about what she said—she tends to dramatize] frontier (of something) the limit of something, especially the limit of what is known about a particular subject or activity to push back the frontiers of science (= to increase knowledge of science) to roll back the frontiers of government (= to limit the powers of the government)microbean extremely small living thing that you can only see under a microscope and that may cause diseaseinmenacean individual or situation that causes problems My neighbor's dog is a menace who seems to enjoy going potty on my porch. In the summer, ants can be a real menace in the kitcheninaugurateinaugurate something to officially open a building or start an organization with a special ceremony The new theatre was inaugurated by the mayor. The assembly was formally inaugurated in December.consentpermission or agreement: They can't publish your name without your consent. You can only come on the trip if your parents give their consent. by common consent ​ most people agree: Her latest novel, by common consent, is her best yet.dentCheap goods from overseas could severely dent the company's sales. The appearance of these cheap goods from abroad has severely dented the company's sales. The car was quite badly dented on one side.moraleto boost/raise/improve morale Morale amongst the players is very high at the moment. Staff are suffering from low morale. Another win would be good for the team's morale.

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