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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
The French Revolution
Everything you need to know about the Revolution from Triggers to the Feudal System. No specific dates included
Terms in this set (25)
What was the Calling of the Estates General?
A Trigger of the Revolution. In August 1788 the Government of France was Bankrupt. The King was forced to call the Estates General. It had not met for well over a century and consisted of representatives from the 3 Estates.
What did the King hope would happen at the Estates General? Alternatively, what about the 2nd and 3rd estate?
Louis XVI hoped the assembly would agree to raise taxes.
The 2nd Estate hoped to get concessions from the King.
The 3rd estate had hopes that it would solve all their problems (starvation, inequalities etc.)
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
It was a meeting of the elected 3rd Estate representatives of the Estates General who were locked out of the meeting. They met in a Tennis Court and swore only to stop meeting when France had a Constitution.
Name three long term causes of the Revolution.
The American War of Independence- France sent over soldiers to help the Americans. The soldiers came home full of ideas from the Declaration of Independence.
The Enlightenment- people begin to realize that God hadn't put the King on the throne.
Absolutism- France had Absolute Monarchy, not everyone thought that was fair.
Who were the 2nd Estate?
The nobility- those with a title. They owned much land, got good positions because of their titles, and didn't pay much tax.
There were four parts to the 3rd Estate. Name them.
The Middle Class: Officially part of the 3rd estate. Quite well off.
Landless laborers: People with no wealth or possessions- just live off their labour.
Peasants: the vast majority, who just scrape by.
The Urban Workers
What happened on the 14th July 1789 and why?
The rebels stormed the Bastille (an old fortress) partially as a statement (it was a symbol of the old france) and partially to steal gunpowder, which was stored there. They freed the few prisoners too.
What electoral reforms were made through the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Active male citizens can elect Judges, deputies, tax collectors and even priests.
Give an example of a social reform.
Jobs are given on the basis of merit, not parentage.
What economic reforms were made?
One new currency is established and weights and measurements are standardized throughout France.
What did the Declaration change about the King?
The King is no longer the King of France but King of the French, and he can delay laws for three years; cannot abolish them.
When was the Declaration of the Rights of Man dated?
26th August 1789
Name three concepts the Declaration introduced.
Freedom of Press, Freedom of Speech and Resistance to Oppression.
What happened in Versailles a month later? (October 1789)
A crowd of angry women marched on Versailles in order to bring the King and Queen back to Paris. They also suspected the Royalty to be hoarding flour.
What was the Committee of Public Safety?
A committee of 12 people who were to watch over the work of the Government and defend the Revolution from Internal and External threats.
What was Napoleon's excuse for staging his coup?
He said "The Council of Ancients" had called him.
What changes did Napoleon make to the running of France?
He created a civil service, replaced the electoral system with one prefect he chose himself, and simplified all the laws into a clear system he called 'Code Napoleon'.
What was the Concordat?
An arrangement Napoleon made with the Pope, an agreement that the church wouldn't get its land back.
When Nelson defeated the French navy at Trafalgar, how did Napoleon try to defeat the UK?
He tried to use the Continental system. None of the lands he controlled were allowed to trade with the British.
Why didn't it work?
Because many people resented the system because they liked what Britain and her colonies had to offer for trade. So they traded with her anyway.
What is guerilla warfare?
Guerilla warfare is a tactic used by one side of the conflict against a force they could never defeat face to face. Instead they ambush their enemy's supplies and use the shoot and run technique.
Where was Napoleon defeated and by whom?
He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Wellington and his army.
What happened at the Congress of Vienna?
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of all the Heads of Europe after Napoleon's defeat. They wanted to return Europe to how it had been before the Revolution.
Name three important legacies of the Revolution.
Equality of People before the law, ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity, and state education.
How did Napoleon become a legend after his death? What didd the French eventually do to show they thought he was a great man?
They reburied him in Paris with a great ceremony in a grand tomb. His experiences were recorded and published in 'A Memorial of St. Helena'.
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