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BYU SFL 210 Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Theory
describes, explains, and predicts
Psychoanalytic
1. Children move through stages
2. Confront conflicts between biology and social expectations
3. how conflict are resolved determine a person's:
a. ability to learn
b. get along with others
c. cope with anxiety
Psychoanalytic - Psychosexual
Freud
How parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the early years is crucial for healthy personality
Psychosexual - Id
1. Largest part of mind
2. Unconscious, present at birth
3. Basic source of biological needs and desires (shoulder devil)
Psychosexual - Ego
1. Conscious, rational part of personality
2. emerges in early infancy
3. redirects id to react in acceptable ways (common sense)`
Psychosexual - Superego/Conscience
1. 3-6 years begins
2. develops through interactions with parents
3. controls id, demands of world, and conscience
Psychosexual Stages - Oral
birth - 1
if needs not met, develop thumb sucking, fingernail biting, overeating, smoking etc.
Psychosexual Stages - Anal
1-3
toddlers like to control urine and feces. If toilet trained too early or have too little demands, makes them too clean "anal" or very messy
Psychosexual Stages - Phallic
3-6
Id impulse transfer to genitals, enjoys genital stimulation
boys: Oedipus conflict - "if I can become like dad, mom will fall in love with me"
girls - Electra Conflict - "If can become like mom, dad will fall in love with me"
Psychosexual Stages - Latency
6-11
labito (sex drive) dies down
Psychosexual Stages - Genital
Adolescence
If you make it through stages and make it to adulthood you stay the same, also if you have struggles making it through you will always have struggles
Psychosocial
Erikson
adds another element to ego: the ego strives to make positive contribution to society by pushing the need to develop skills and attitudes to contribute to society
Psychosocial Stages: Trust vs Mistrust
birth - 1
through warm, responsive care the infant learns to trust, views world as good, or through neglect learns to mistrust the world
Psychosocial Stages: Autonomy vs shame & doubt
1-3
using mental/motor skills, children want to decide for self, parents foster this by permitting reasonable free choice
Psychosocial Stages: Initiative vs Guilt
3-6
through make-believe, children gain insight into the person they can become, parents support, develop ambition and responsibility, parents demand too much-they develop guilt
Psychosocial Stages: Industry vs Inferiority
6-11
at school children learn work cooperation inferiority/incompetence occurs when negative experiences happen at home, school, or with peers
Psychosocial Stages: Identity vs. Role Confusion
adolescence
Identity occurs when exploring values and vocational goals, neg outcome is confusion about future adult roles
Psychosocial Stages: Intimacy vs Isolation
young adult
establish intimate relationships. early disappointments lead to hurt, cannot form close bond and remain isolated
Generativity vs Stagnation
Middle Adulthood
desire to give to next generation though children, caring for others, productive work
Failure leads to feelings of lack of accomplishment (aka Mid-life crisis)
Integrity vs Despair
Old Age
integrity results from a well lived life, those dissatisfied fear death
Behaviorism
John Watson
study of observable events - stimuli and responses
Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning
environment is supreme controlling force
development one continuous process
neutral stimulus --> stimulus --> reflexive response
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)
Behaviorism: Operant Conditioning
Skinner
Frequency of desired behavior is increased through offering "reinforcers" and undesirable behavior is decreased through "punishment"
negative/positive reinforcement
negative/positive punishment
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)
Social Learning Theory
Bandura
built on principles of conditioning, offered expanded view of how children acquire new "responses"
Modeling/Imitation/observational learning
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)
Cognitive- Developmental Theory
Piaget
Children Actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world
adaptation: just as physical parts of the body have"adapted" to better fit environment, mind also has structures (schemas) to add info to as a way of adapting)
(Dis,OtC,Nu & Na, Uni & Context)
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Equilibrium
children learn when new stimulus puts them in a disequilibrium - children review incorrect ideas until they achieve a new equilibrium or balance between internal structures and info they encounter in everyday world.
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Assimilation
use current schemas to interpret new info in external world (ie calling a plane a metal bird)
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Accommodation
creates new schemas or adjusts old schemas after noticing current way of thinking doesn't capture the environment completely
Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Sensorimotor Period
Birth to 2 years
Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Preoperational period
2-7 years
Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Concrete Operational Period
7-11 years
Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Formal Operational Period
11 years
Info Processing Theory
information is actively coded, transformed, and organized
sensory input--> Short Term memory --> long term memory
(Cont, OtC, Nu & Na (those born with a better system), Uni (process) & Context (what is coming into the system)
Evolutionary Psychology
Darwin
seeks to understand adaptive value, studies cognitive, emotional and social competencies and change with age
(Dis, Stable, Na, Uni)
Ethology
Darwin
concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
(Dis, Stable, Na, Uni)
Ethology: Critical Periods
limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulation environment
ex. puberty
Ethology: Sensitive Periods
A time that is optimal for certain capacities emerge and which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
ex. language at a young age
Ecological Systems Theory
Bronfenbrenner
views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment (all systems and pars of systems are important to accomplish their task)
(Cont, Stable, Nu, Context)
Ecological Systems Theory: Microsystems
activities or interaction patterns in the childs immediate surrounding - child in a family
Ecological Systems Theory: Mesosystems
connection between microsystems - child in 2 microsystems overlapping - parent-teacher conferences
Ecological Systems Theory: Exosystems
social setting that do not contain the child but that affect their experiences in immediate settings - parent's job
Ecological Systems Theory: Macrosystem
consists of values, laws, customs, and resources of a particular culture that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment - understanding cultural/religion to understand individuals (view about women and children)
Ecological Systems Theory: Chronosystem
Aspect of time; temporal changes in children's environments which produce new conditions that affect development - time factor
Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky
Children acquire new ways of thinking an behaving that make up a community's culturethrough cooperative dialogues (social interaction) with more knowledgeable members of society
Sociocultural Theory: Scaffolding
more knowledgeable person in society just assists
Sociocultural Theory: Zone of proximal develpment
not what a child did on their own, but what tey can do with a little bit of help. Area between upper boundary and lower boundary (ex. helping with math problems)
Medieval Period View of Children
Childhood (to/under age 7 or 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs. children needed to be protected
Reformation View of Children
Puritans - "child depravity" children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized
Enlightenment View of Children
John Locke - child as a tabula rasa - they are nothing at all and completely shaped by experience
Jean Rousseau: not blank slates but noble savages - naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong, parents can only hurt the built - in moral sense
Correlation Design
investigator obtains info on participants w/out altering their experiences
strength: study of relationships
weakness: not cause-effect relationships
use: to see if there is a relationship b/w two things
conclusions: either positive or negative relationship, never cause and effect
Laboratory Design
in lab, manipulate independent variable, see its effect of dependent variable, requires random assignment
strength: cause and effect inferences
weakness: findings may not generalize to the real world
use: when you want control over treatment
conclusions:
Field Design
the investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions in natural settings
strength: can generalize findings to the real world
weakness: can't control variables
Natural/Quasi- experiment
investigator compares already existing treatments in the real world, carefully selecting groups of participants to ensure that their characterisitics are as much alike as possible
strength: studies real-world conditions that can't be manipulated experimentally
weakness: can' control all variables
Clinical Method of research
a full picture of one individual's psychological functioning, obtained by combining everything
Ethnography
Participant observation of culture or distinct social group but making extensive field notes
Sequential reasearch
the investigtator conducts several cross-sectional or longitudinal investigations
Microgenetic Research
the investigator presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions
Reliability
the consistency, or repeat-ability of measures of behavior
Validity
the extent to which measures in a research study accurately reflect what the investigator intended to measure
Children's research Rights
Protection from Harm
Informed Consent
Privacy
Knowledge of results
Beneficial treatments
Amniocentesis
a hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to obtain a sample of fluid in the uterus. Cells are examined for genetic defects. can be performed by the 14th week after conception. Small risk of miscarriage
Chorionic Villus Samling
needed very early in pregnancy. athin tube is inserted into the uterus through the vagina, or a hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall. A small plug of tissue is removed from the end of one or more chorinonic villi, the hairlike projections on the membrane surrounding the developing organism. Cells are examined for genetic defects. can be performed at 9 weeks afer conception. greater risk of miscarriage than amniocentesis. risk of limb ddeformities, which increases the earlier the procedure is performed
Teratogens
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
Prenatal Development: Zygote
2 weeks
Fertilization, Implantation, Start of placenta
Prenatal Development: Embryo
6 weeks
Arms, legs, face, organs & muscles all develop; heart begins beating
Prenatal Development: Fetus
30 weeks
Growth and finishing
Prenatal Development: Age of Viability
22 to 26 weeks
capable of living outside of the uterus
Stages of Child Birth
1. Dialation and effacement of the cervix - transition of the baby
2.Delivery of the Baby - Pushing, baby birthed
3. Birth of the Placenta
Mitosis
chromosomes copy themselves and split and then are matched with proteins from the cytoplasm (all cells but gametes created this way)
Meiosis
halves the number of chromosomes normally present - gametes created this way
Crossing Over
chromosomes next to each other break at one or more points and exchange segments so that genes from one are replaced by genes from another
Genotype
genetic info that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
Phenotype
directly observable characteristics
chromosomes
storers of genetic info
zygote
the cell after the sperm and ovum unite in fertilization
gamete
sex cells (sperm/ovum)
Lifespan of Sperm
3 to 5 days
Identical Twins
one egg that splits after being fertilized
Fraternal Twins
two eggs each get fertilized
Gender of Child
Sperm decides
girl sperm - big heads/short tails - live longer, swim shorter
boy sperm - small heads/long tails - live shorter, swim faster
Infant Mortality Rate of the US
6.1 deaths in 1,000 births
28th in the World