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describes, explains, and predicts


1. Children move through stages
2. Confront conflicts between biology and social expectations
3. how conflict are resolved determine a person's:
a. ability to learn
b. get along with others
c. cope with anxiety

Psychoanalytic - Psychosexual

How parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the early years is crucial for healthy personality

Psychosexual - Id

1. Largest part of mind
2. Unconscious, present at birth
3. Basic source of biological needs and desires (shoulder devil)

Psychosexual - Ego

1. Conscious, rational part of personality
2. emerges in early infancy
3. redirects id to react in acceptable ways (common sense)`

Psychosexual - Superego/Conscience

1. 3-6 years begins
2. develops through interactions with parents
3. controls id, demands of world, and conscience

Psychosexual Stages - Oral

birth - 1
if needs not met, develop thumb sucking, fingernail biting, overeating, smoking etc.

Psychosexual Stages - Anal

toddlers like to control urine and feces. If toilet trained too early or have too little demands, makes them too clean "anal" or very messy

Psychosexual Stages - Phallic

Id impulse transfer to genitals, enjoys genital stimulation
boys: Oedipus conflict - "if I can become like dad, mom will fall in love with me"
girls - Electra Conflict - "If can become like mom, dad will fall in love with me"

Psychosexual Stages - Latency

labito (sex drive) dies down

Psychosexual Stages - Genital

If you make it through stages and make it to adulthood you stay the same, also if you have struggles making it through you will always have struggles


adds another element to ego: the ego strives to make positive contribution to society by pushing the need to develop skills and attitudes to contribute to society

Psychosocial Stages: Trust vs Mistrust

birth - 1
through warm, responsive care the infant learns to trust, views world as good, or through neglect learns to mistrust the world

Psychosocial Stages: Autonomy vs shame & doubt

using mental/motor skills, children want to decide for self, parents foster this by permitting reasonable free choice

Psychosocial Stages: Initiative vs Guilt

through make-believe, children gain insight into the person they can become, parents support, develop ambition and responsibility, parents demand too much-they develop guilt

Psychosocial Stages: Industry vs Inferiority

at school children learn work cooperation inferiority/incompetence occurs when negative experiences happen at home, school, or with peers

Psychosocial Stages: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Identity occurs when exploring values and vocational goals, neg outcome is confusion about future adult roles

Psychosocial Stages: Intimacy vs Isolation

young adult
establish intimate relationships. early disappointments lead to hurt, cannot form close bond and remain isolated

Generativity vs Stagnation

Middle Adulthood
desire to give to next generation though children, caring for others, productive work
Failure leads to feelings of lack of accomplishment (aka Mid-life crisis)

Integrity vs Despair

Old Age
integrity results from a well lived life, those dissatisfied fear death


John Watson
study of observable events - stimuli and responses

Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning

environment is supreme controlling force
development one continuous process
neutral stimulus --> stimulus --> reflexive response
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)

Behaviorism: Operant Conditioning

Frequency of desired behavior is increased through offering "reinforcers" and undesirable behavior is decreased through "punishment"
negative/positive reinforcement
negative/positive punishment
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)

Social Learning Theory

built on principles of conditioning, offered expanded view of how children acquire new "responses"
Modeling/Imitation/observational learning
(Cont, OtC, Nu, Context)

Cognitive- Developmental Theory

Children Actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world
adaptation: just as physical parts of the body have"adapted" to better fit environment, mind also has structures (schemas) to add info to as a way of adapting)
(Dis,OtC,Nu & Na, Uni & Context)

Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Equilibrium

children learn when new stimulus puts them in a disequilibrium - children review incorrect ideas until they achieve a new equilibrium or balance between internal structures and info they encounter in everyday world.

Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Assimilation

use current schemas to interpret new info in external world (ie calling a plane a metal bird)

Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Accommodation

creates new schemas or adjusts old schemas after noticing current way of thinking doesn't capture the environment completely

Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Sensorimotor Period

Birth to 2 years

Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Preoperational period

2-7 years

Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Concrete Operational Period

7-11 years

Cognitive-Developmental Theory Stages: Formal Operational Period

11 years

Info Processing Theory

information is actively coded, transformed, and organized
sensory input--> Short Term memory --> long term memory
(Cont, OtC, Nu & Na (those born with a better system), Uni (process) & Context (what is coming into the system)

Evolutionary Psychology

seeks to understand adaptive value, studies cognitive, emotional and social competencies and change with age
(Dis, Stable, Na, Uni)


concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
(Dis, Stable, Na, Uni)

Ethology: Critical Periods

limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulation environment
ex. puberty

Ethology: Sensitive Periods

A time that is optimal for certain capacities emerge and which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
ex. language at a young age

Ecological Systems Theory

views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment (all systems and pars of systems are important to accomplish their task)
(Cont, Stable, Nu, Context)

Ecological Systems Theory: Microsystems

activities or interaction patterns in the childs immediate surrounding - child in a family

Ecological Systems Theory: Mesosystems

connection between microsystems - child in 2 microsystems overlapping - parent-teacher conferences

Ecological Systems Theory: Exosystems

social setting that do not contain the child but that affect their experiences in immediate settings - parent's job

Ecological Systems Theory: Macrosystem

consists of values, laws, customs, and resources of a particular culture that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment - understanding cultural/religion to understand individuals (view about women and children)

Ecological Systems Theory: Chronosystem

Aspect of time; temporal changes in children's environments which produce new conditions that affect development - time factor

Sociocultural Theory

Children acquire new ways of thinking an behaving that make up a community's culturethrough cooperative dialogues (social interaction) with more knowledgeable members of society

Sociocultural Theory: Scaffolding

more knowledgeable person in society just assists

Sociocultural Theory: Zone of proximal develpment

not what a child did on their own, but what tey can do with a little bit of help. Area between upper boundary and lower boundary (ex. helping with math problems)

Medieval Period View of Children

Childhood (to/under age 7 or 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs. children needed to be protected

Reformation View of Children

Puritans - "child depravity" children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized

Enlightenment View of Children

John Locke - child as a tabula rasa - they are nothing at all and completely shaped by experience
Jean Rousseau: not blank slates but noble savages - naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong, parents can only hurt the built - in moral sense

Correlation Design

investigator obtains info on participants w/out altering their experiences
strength: study of relationships
weakness: not cause-effect relationships
use: to see if there is a relationship b/w two things
conclusions: either positive or negative relationship, never cause and effect

Laboratory Design

in lab, manipulate independent variable, see its effect of dependent variable, requires random assignment
strength: cause and effect inferences
weakness: findings may not generalize to the real world
use: when you want control over treatment

Field Design

the investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions in natural settings
strength: can generalize findings to the real world
weakness: can't control variables

Natural/Quasi- experiment

investigator compares already existing treatments in the real world, carefully selecting groups of participants to ensure that their characterisitics are as much alike as possible
strength: studies real-world conditions that can't be manipulated experimentally
weakness: can' control all variables

Clinical Method of research

a full picture of one individual's psychological functioning, obtained by combining everything


Participant observation of culture or distinct social group but making extensive field notes

Sequential reasearch

the investigtator conducts several cross-sectional or longitudinal investigations

Microgenetic Research

the investigator presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions


the consistency, or repeat-ability of measures of behavior


the extent to which measures in a research study accurately reflect what the investigator intended to measure

Children's research Rights

Protection from Harm
Informed Consent
Knowledge of results
Beneficial treatments


a hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to obtain a sample of fluid in the uterus. Cells are examined for genetic defects. can be performed by the 14th week after conception. Small risk of miscarriage

Chorionic Villus Samling

needed very early in pregnancy. athin tube is inserted into the uterus through the vagina, or a hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall. A small plug of tissue is removed from the end of one or more chorinonic villi, the hairlike projections on the membrane surrounding the developing organism. Cells are examined for genetic defects. can be performed at 9 weeks afer conception. greater risk of miscarriage than amniocentesis. risk of limb ddeformities, which increases the earlier the procedure is performed


any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

Prenatal Development: Zygote

2 weeks
Fertilization, Implantation, Start of placenta

Prenatal Development: Embryo

6 weeks
Arms, legs, face, organs & muscles all develop; heart begins beating

Prenatal Development: Fetus

30 weeks
Growth and finishing

Prenatal Development: Age of Viability

22 to 26 weeks
capable of living outside of the uterus

Stages of Child Birth

1. Dialation and effacement of the cervix - transition of the baby
2.Delivery of the Baby - Pushing, baby birthed
3. Birth of the Placenta


chromosomes copy themselves and split and then are matched with proteins from the cytoplasm (all cells but gametes created this way)


halves the number of chromosomes normally present - gametes created this way

Crossing Over

chromosomes next to each other break at one or more points and exchange segments so that genes from one are replaced by genes from another


genetic info that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics


directly observable characteristics


storers of genetic info


the cell after the sperm and ovum unite in fertilization


sex cells (sperm/ovum)

Lifespan of Sperm

3 to 5 days

Identical Twins

one egg that splits after being fertilized

Fraternal Twins

two eggs each get fertilized

Gender of Child

Sperm decides
girl sperm - big heads/short tails - live longer, swim shorter
boy sperm - small heads/long tails - live shorter, swim faster

Infant Mortality Rate of the US

6.1 deaths in 1,000 births
28th in the World

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