219 terms

Chemistry Cards

Chapter 9 through 16
eliminate all toxic chemicals
Understanding stoichiometric reactions enables you to:
coefficient for each reactant
In a balanced chemical equation, the molar ratio of two reactants is determined from the:
All uncombined atoms, Molecules, Moles
In a balanced chemical equation, the coefficients represent the relative numbers of:
always equal
In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the products compared to the total mass of the reactants is:
In using balanced equations to solve mass-mass problems, the mass of each reactant is first converted to:
the molar mass of the substance
The number of moles of a reactant or product is determined by dividing its mass by:
grams to moles to moles to grams
In mass-mass problems, the steps to follow are best summarized as going from:
balancing the equation
The first step in any stoichiometric problem is:
molar ratio of reactants to products
The mass of a reactant or product can be determined by multiplying the number of moles of the substance by the:
used up
The limiting reactant in a completed chemical reaction will be the substance:
left over
The excess reactant in a completed chemical reaction will be the substance:
Which molecule is In Excess in the reaction pictured?
In the picture, what is the Mole Ratio for hydrogen reacting with chlorine?
produces 2mol PH3
The balanced equation P4 (s) + 6H2 (g) -> 4PH3 (g) tells us that 3moles of H2:
An excess of Al and 6.0 mol of Br2 are reacted according to the equation 2Al + 3Br2 -> 2AlBr3
How many moles of ALBr3 will be formed?
When balanced in standard form (smallest whole numbers), the coefficient for CO2 is:
What mass of O2 is required to react completely with 25g of C6 H14?
What mass of carbon dioxide can be produced from 25 g of C6 H14?
A state function is dependent on the pathway of the process: T or F
The SI unit of energy is joule. T or F
When energy is used, the quantity decreases while the quality stays the same. T or F
Potential energy
The chemical energy stored in coal is an example of:
In any process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
Which of the following is a statement of the law of conservation of energy?
Potential Energy
The energy possessed by objects because of their position or the arrangement of their particles is called:
The boulder
Which of the objects illustrates potential energy?
limiting reactant
The amount of products formed in a chemical reaction is determined by the amount of the:
complete a mass-mass problem for each reactant
In a balanced chemical equation, how do you determine the limiting reactant?
Expected yield
The amount of product that should be produced based on stoichiometric calculations is the:
Conservation of Mass
Which concept allows you to relate the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation to actual amounts of reactants or products?
Cl is attached to one H and one H is bonded to another
Which drawing shows the products of a reaction between Hydrogen and Chlorine?
Burning of a match
Which of the following is exothermic?
The device used to determine the heat associated with a chemical reaction is called a:
The specific heat capacity
The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1g of a Substance by 1C is:
Decreases, Increases
As a ball rolls down a hill, the potential energy _______ and the kinetic energy _________.
Internal energy
The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the...in the system is called the:
The quality of the energy of the universe generally decreases
Which of the following statements are true?
Heat is typically measured in:
The fossil fuel ___ was formed from the remains of plants that were buried and exposed to high pressure and heat over time.
J/g Degrees C
Which of the following is a valid unit for specific heat capacity?
Which of the following is a measure of the random motions of the components.
The coal with the highest energy available per unit burned is:
When the system does work on the surroundings, the sign of work is
The mass and velocity of the object
Kinetic energy depends on:
The measure of disorder or randomness is termed by:
When heat flows into the system ,the sign of heat is:
Natural gas consists mostly of:
0.450 J/g C
A 5.1G sample of iron is heated from 36 to 75C. The amount of energy required is 89.5J. The specific heat capacity of this sample of iron is:
The entropy of the universe is always increasing
The 2nd law of thermodynamics tells us that:
The energy of the universe is not constant
The 1st law of thermodynamics states:
The flow of energy due to a temperature difference is called:
The Enthalpy Change
At Constant Pressure, the heat absorbed/realeased during a chemical reaction is equal to:
Hess' Law
What principle relates the enthalpy change for a net reaction to the enthalpy changes of a series of summed reactions?
It changes in sign
What happens to ΔH if a chemical equation is reversed?
W(g) -> X(g) -> Y(g) & 2Y(g) -> Z(g)
Which reactions are exothermic?
W(s) -> W(g) & Z(s) -> Z(g)
Which reactions are endothermic?
4.184 J/g C
What is the specific heat of liquid water?
1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules
Which of the following is the correct relationship between joules and calories?
The capacity to do work is called:
One mole of CO2 at STP will occupy a molar volume of:
directly proportional
If Temperature and Pressure are constant, the volume and number of moles of a gas (Avogadro's Law) are:
????? (chapter 13, question 19)
What volume will 2 mol of N2 occupy at STP?
It would increase
What would happen to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas sample if the Temperature of the sample increased from 20C to 40C?
Pressure is due to the collisions of the gas particles with the walls of the container
Which of these statements are True about kinetic molecular theory?
Solute, Solvent
In a softdrink, CO2 (g) is a _____ and water is the _____.
What term is used by chemists to quantitatively describe a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved?
70g HNO3 & 30g Water
A nitric acid solution that is 70% HNO3 (by mass) contains
Which of the following is a product of all neutralization reactions?
1mole of hydrogen ions
One equivalent of an acid is the amount of acid that will product
blocking the water molecules
Adding solute to a liquid increases the boiling point by:
Common strong acids include:
Neutralization Reaction
Another name for an acid-base reaction is:
When temperature is increased, the solubility of a Gas typically:
a mix of several different kinds of gases
Air, the gas we are most familiar with, consists of:
Gases are weightless near the surface of the earth.
Which of the following is NOT a property of gases?
The characteristics of gases needed to describe completely include all EXCEPT:
The most useful unit for describing the AMOUNT of a gas is the:
An instrument used to measure the pressure exerted by a gas in a CLOSED container is:
0C and 1atm pressure
What are the standard conditions of Temperature and Pressure? (STP)
inversely Proportional
If the amount and Temperature of a gas are kept constant, the pressure and volume (Boyle's Law) of the gas are:
100C (375K)
The normal boiling point of water is:
Intra-molecular forces
The bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a water molecule are:
Ice and Water
At 1atm of pressure and 0C temperature, which phase of H2O can exist?
Which of the following should have the lowest boiling point?
London Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, Ionic
Order Intermolecular forces from Weakest to Strongest:
Directly proportional (Chapter 13, question 8)
When a sample of a gas is kept at constant pressure, the volume and ____ (Charles's Law) of the gas are:
Kelvin Scale
The temperature scale that has absolute zero as its zero point is the:
The law of partial pressures of gases was formulated by:
The sum of the pressures exerted
In a mix of gases, the total pressure of the mix is equal to:
Temperatures greater than 0C and 1atm or less
The ideal gas law describes the behavior of real gases under:
What temperature scale must be used when working with the Ideal Gas Equation?
R, the gas constant in the ideal gas equation, equals 0.08206. Units?
7.83 atm
The air in the inner tube of the tire of a bike has a pressure of 115psi. Convert to atm:
Boyle's Law
Which of the following laws will give you a graph with an inverted hyperbola?
Aqueous Solutions
solutions with water as the solvent are called:
Moles of solute/liters of solution
Molarity is expressed as:
mass of solvent
To determine the concentration of a solution in moles, you need to know all EXCEPT:
A solution that contains as much solute as can possibly be dissolved is:
Ionic Solids dissolve best in liquid solvents that are:
Its a polar solvent, water is attracted to both anions and cations
Why can water dissolve NaCl, whereas hexane cannot?
grinding the solute into small pieces
The rate at which a SOLID solute can be dissolved in a liquid solvent can be increased by:
Concentration of the solute molecules dissolved
Colligative properties of solutions depend on the:
Solution will conduct electricity
Which of the following is true for ionic solids dissolved in water?
Molecular solid
Name the type of crystalline solid formed by SiO2
Atomic Solid
Name the type of crystalline solid formed by Copper
Ionic Solid
Name the type of crystalline solid formed by potassium bromide
Which of the following has the highest melting temperature?
As the atmospheric pressure around a liquid decreases, the boiling temperature of the liquid:
As the Tempature of a liquid increases, the vapor pressure of the liquid generally:
Definite Volume, Tasteless, Ordorless, Colourless
Describe 4 physical properties of water:
hydrogen? (Chapter 14, question 9)
An unually strong Dipole-Dipole force that occurs between Hydrogen and Highly electronegative atoms:
A homogeneous mix in which the components are uniformly mixed:
All; Normality, Molarity, Mass Percent
Which of the following is (are) a unit of concentration?
In the process of making a dilution, the amount of ___ stays the same.
Escape of vapor molecules with sufficiently high energy from the surface of a liquid:
An example of an interstitial alloy is:
An alloy that has different atoms substituted for the host metal atoms is called:
Is equal to the atmospheric pressure
At the boiling point of a substance, the Vapor Pressure:
molar heat of fusion
The energy required to melt 1mol of a substance is the:
London Dispersion Forces
The weak intermolecular attraction between noble gases:
H2O-Hydrogen Bonding NaCl-Ionic N2-DipoleDipole
Identify the major attractive force in each of the following molecules:
273K (0C, 32F)
The normal freezing point of water is::
The intermolecular forces called Hydrogen Bonding WON'T exist between molecules of:
H2PO4, HPO3 ^2
Which of the following is not a conjugate acid-base pair?
weak conjugate base
The fact that HCL(aq) is a strong acid meanas that Cl is a:
H C2 H3 O2 or CH3 COOH
Which of the following is NOT a strong acid?
[H+] < [OH-]
Which of the following must be TRUE if a solution is to be considered basic?
5.0 x 10^11 M
Calculate the [H] in a solution that has a pOH of 3.7
2.0 x 10^-12 M
Calculate the [H] in a solution that shows a pH of 11.7:
A solution has [OH]=4.0 x 10^-5 M. The pOH of this solution is:
6.2 x 10^-8
Calculate the [H] in a solution that has a pH of 5.21
A solution has a pH of 6.49. The pOH of this solution is:
All; Will resist any change in its [H], solution will not change its pH very much, even if a strong base or concentrated acid is added, Any [H] ions added will react with a conjugate base of a weak acid already in solution
Which of the following is TRUE for a buffered solution?
Furnishes hydroxide ions in water solution
In the Arrhenius definition, a base is a substance that:
that donates a proton
Bronsted-Lowry definition, an acid is a substance:
Substances that change colour when added to acids/bases are:
A substance that can act as either an acid or base is:
differ by only a proton
A conjugate acid-base pair consists of two substances that:
dissociate in water
The relative strengths of acids are determined by the extent to which the acid particles:
attraction for protons
The strength of a Bronsted-Lowry base is determined by its:
Strong Acid, Weak Base
Which of the following could be a conjugate acid-base pair?
Carboxylic acids
Which categories contain members with the -COOH group?
HNO3 is an example of what type of acid?
equivalence point
The point in titration when the pH reaches 7.0 is called the:
Titration curve
The plot of pH against volume of titrant is the:
greater than 7
A solution that is basic in nature has a pH that is:
1.0 x 10^-14
The ion-product constant for water (Kw) is:
Rank the following from smallest to largest by atomic size:
F,O,S & S,O,F
Which of the following exhibits the correct orders for both atomic size and ionization energy, respectively?
Magnesium reacts with sulfer to form:
Calcium reacts with fluorine to form:
The max number of electrons allowed in an F sublevel is:
The max number of electrons allowed in the P sublevel of the third principal level is:
Which of the following is an Incorrect designation for an atomic orbital?
1s^2 2s^2 2p^4
The electron configuration for the oxygen atom is:
have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels
The elements Chlorine and Iodine have similar chemical properties because they:
The Alkali metals (group 1) have how many valence electrons?/
The noble gases contain how many valence electrons?
remains constant
When moving down a group in the periodic table, the number of valence electrons:
[Ar] 4s^2 3d^5
The abbreviated electron configuration for Manganese is:
VSEPR theory
Which theory is used to account for the shapes of molecules?
What shape does a carbon dioxide molecule have?
trigonal planar
What shape does a boron trifluoride (BR3) molecule have?
The shape of a methane (CH4) molecule is:
What shape does a water molecule have?
105 degrees
What si the bond angle of a water molecule?
Oxygen attracts them more
How are the electrons shared in a bond between Oxygen and Carbon?
Larger, Smaller
Anions are always ____and cations are always ____ than the parent atoms
polar covalent
When electrons are shared Unequally, chemists characterize these types of bonds as:
Which of the following atoms has the highest ionization energy?
Which of the following atoms has the smallest atomic size?
Of the metals in Group 1, which has the Highest ionization energy?
A photon
A pachet of energy of electromagnetic radiation is called:
The max number of electrons allowed in the 4th energy level is:
Sodium has how many electrons in it's outermost principal energy level?
Which of the following is the highest energy orbital for a silicon atom?
Which one of the following atoms has a partly filled d sublevel?
Ionic Bonds
Atoms with greatly differing electronegativity values are expected to form
Metals typically have __ electronegativity values
nonmetal elements typically have ___electronegativities
The most electronegative element is:
Which of the following elements have the lowest electronegativity?
Nonpolar covalent
If atom X forms a diatomic molecule with itself, the bond is:
Dipole moment
When a molecular has a center of positive charge & center of negative charge, it has a:
A phosphorus atom needs to gain __ electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration.
The electron configuration for the bromide Ion is identical to that of:
in ground state
When electrons are in the lowest energy orbitals available, the atom is:
the wavelength
The distance between two successive peaks in a wave is called:
The ___ indicates the number of waves that pass a given point per second.
The electron cloud is least dense where the probability of finding an electron is:
Dumbbells (lobes)
All p orbitals are shaped like:
The 3s orbital differ from the 2s orbital in that it is:
The energy levels of atoms are ____, meaning that only certain discrete energy levels are allowed
As the principal energy level increases, the average distance of an electron energy level from the nucleus:
What is the max number of electrons a d-orbital can hold?
Which of these ions have the same electron configuration as Ar?
Cl?? (Chapter 12, number 11
In an ionic bond, how does a nitrogen atom most commonly achieve an octet of electrons?
An ionic bond is the transfer of electrons and a colvalent bond is the sharing of electrons
how does a covalent bond differ from an ionic bond?
In a double bond between two atoms, the total number of shared electrons is:
Which of the following bonds is primarily covalent?
less than 0.5
A bond is classified as Nonpolar covalent if the difference in the electronegativities between two atoms is:
Both particles and waves
Light has the properties of:
sound waves
Which of the following is not a form of electromagnetic radiation?
What is the symbol for wavelength?
Radio waves
Which of the following has the longest wavelength?
Electron as a wave of quantized energy
The quantum (wave)-mechanical model explains the atom by treating the:
The probability of finding electrons in certain regions of an atom is described by:
How is an electron's principal quantum number symbolized?
the principal quantum number
The number of sublevels found in each principal energy level of an atom are equal to:
if the have opposite spins
Under what conditions can two electrons occupy the same orbital?
In general, a larger atom has a smaller electronegativity. T or F
An N -- F bond is expected to be more polar than O -- F bond. T or F
Ch4 has ionic bonds. T or F
The F and O2 ions have the same electron configuration. T or F
Chemical compounds are always electrically charged. T or F
An atom will gain, lose, or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas configuration. T or F
Is formed when an atom loses electrons
A positively charged ion:
loses one electron
When a potassium atom becomes an ion, it:
loses two electrons
When a calcium atom becomes an ion, it:
All of the following atoms have an octet of electrons except: