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when compression pushes rocks together this is created; the hanging wall moves up relative to the hanging wall
when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally this is created; related to transform boundaries
the hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall in this; the tension pulls the fault apart (divergent)
this kid of mountain range is formed when rock layers are squeezed and forced upward; Appalachian, Himalyas and the Alps
this kind of mountain range is formed when tension causes large blocks of crust to drop down; like Sierra Nevada and Teton range
form when convergent oceanic crust sinks into the asthenosphere. The crust melts, forms magma and erupts
this is what happens to the ocean floor the farther the oceanic lithosphere is from a mid-ocean ridge
the reason less dense compounds make up Earth's crust while the densest compounds make up the core
iron, calcium, magnesium
oceanic crust is denser than the continental crust because it contains more of these three elements
where scientists look for clues about the mantle (because magma flows out of volcanoes there and there is more magnesium in the mantle, making it denser)
float and cover the surface, touch and move around, displace
ways in which tectonic plates floating on the asthenosphere are similar to ice cubes filling a punch bowl
the hypothesis that Alfred Wegener used to explain why continents seem to fit together
Wegener's name for all of the present continents that he thought were once joined 245 million yr ago in a landmass
when the single landmass split into 2 huge continents about 180 million yr ago, Wegener call the countries these names
lack of evidence
the reason that many scientists rejected Wegener's hypothesis for the separation of the continents
crust is formed
this happens in the process of sea-floor spreading when magma rises to the earth's surface and solidifies
rock on the ocean floor provided the final prof of sea-floor spreading with a record of this
density changes in the asthenosphere are cause by the floor of this deep within the earth
global positioning system
this is what scientists use to measure the rate of tectonic plate movement
the highest mountains in the world; they form at convergent boundaries where continents have collided
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