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Exsc chapter 14
Terms in this set (45)
BMI cut off for underweight
BMI cut off for normal weight
BMI cut off for overweight
BMI cut off for obese
30 and greater
BMI cut off for extreme obesity
40 and greater
An estimate of abdominal fat content
measures of excess adipose include
waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio.
Determinants that mediate obesity
genetic, biologic, metabolic, behavioral, social, economic and cultural
Why is creeping obesity a problem as you grow older?
People become less active and their BMR gradually decreases with age. Caloric intake does seem to decrease somewhat with age, but the decrease does not adequately compensate for the decreases in BMR and activity levels.
when fat increases gradually with age
what can be used to estimate body fatness, but is not a good indicator of central fatness?
what is a better indicator of visceral fat distribution
what is Visceral fat tied to?
high triglyceride levels
Basal Metabolic Rate
what is the key to maintaining or delaying changes in BMR?
what influences susceptibility to negative health outcomes?
location of fat
METHODS USED TO ASSESS BODY COMPOSITION
DXA, Underwater weighing, Bod Pod, Skinfold technique, BIA
highly accurate, provides whole body measurements as well as in different regions of the body, Minimal radiation exposure, patient just lays there
Pros of DXA
Usually only found in laboratories or medical centers, equipment is expensive
Cons of DXA
Residual lung volume, Bone density varies by age, ethnicity, and activity level, Gold standard measure (1-2% error), impractical for most applications
Cons of Hydrostatic Weighing
By weighing a person underwater you can estimate body density.
what relies on air displacement to assess body composition
Particularly useful for special populations (e.g., obese older people, the physically challenged)
Pros of Bod Pod
what measurement is the preferred, practical method of assessing body fatness
Fairly accurate, Easy to perform, Inexpensive
Pros of Skinfold Assessment
The more skinfolds measured, the more ______ the fatness estimate. However, measurements with two or three skinfolds have been shown to be reasonably accurate and can be done in a relatively short period.
Other body fat assessment techniques
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA), Infra-Red, Ultrasound
Overestimates lean / underestimates obese
Practical, but expensive, measure for general population
Cons of BIA
if performed incorrectly, measures such as ______ and ______ have much higher error rates
What do the measurements of body composition do?
Serve as baseline data for repeated testing
Provides motivation for goal setting
Provide awareness about health risks
what is the name of biomolecules secreted by fat cells?
what are regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis
what does Adiponectin deficiency promote?
Metabolic dysfunction, Insulin resistance, Fatty liver disease, Cancers
_______________ reduces these symptoms possibly by influencing adipocytokine activity
Physical Activity Guidelines (not weight control)
150-minutes of moderate intensity physical activity
2 days of Resistance exercise
_____________ exercise is important for gaining lean body mass which increases ________ leading to more calories burned at rest & during exercise
What happens if you only diet and dont exercise?
Majority of weight loss attributed to loss of lean tissue.
What are the general guidelines in weight loss?
losing no more than 1-2 pounds a week. losing 500 calories a day
what does 1 pound of fat equal too?
454 grams = 3500 calories
HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED W/ EXCESSIVELY LOW BM
Female Athlete Triad (RED-S)
Muscle dysmorphia (males)
Fear of obesity
Patterns of _____________ are not the same as clinically diagnosed eating disorders. People who adopt disordered eating, however, tend to have a greater chance of developing an eating disorder.
what is the pathological preoccupation with muscularity, can lead to an unhealthy disruption of social and occupational functioning?
what refers to 3 clinical entities common among young women in sports in which a particular individual falls within a spectrum of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability and decrease bone mineral density
FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD
what can result in making false assumptions about body composition changes?
Assessing body weight too frequently
weight (kg) / [height (m) x height (m)]
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