36 terms

Organic Chemistry - Chapter 22

Ms. Johnson From the Modern Chemistry Textbook Holt, Rinehart, Winston
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Organic Compounds
Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Catenation
The covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
Hydrocarbons
Composed of only carbon and hydrogen; they are the simplest organic compounds
Isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
Structural Formula
Indicates the number and type of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms
Structural Isomers
Also called "constitutional isomers," are isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders
Geometric Isomers
Isomers in which the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different
Saturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom in the molecule forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
Cycloalkanes
Alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
Alkyl Groups
Groups of atoms that are formed when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule
Natural Gas
A fossil fuel composed primarily of alkanes containing one to four carbon atoms
Petroleum
A complex mixture of different hydrocarbons that varies greatly in composition
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in which not all carbon atoms have four single covalent bonds
Alkenes
Hydrocarbons that contain double covalent bonds
Alkynes
Hydrocarbons with triple covalent bonds
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons that have six-membered carbon rings and delocalized electrons
Benzene
The primary aromatic hydrocarbon C6H6
Math Formula for Alkanes
N = number of carbon atoms
Physical States
Alkanes have the lowest molecular mass especially those with four carbon atoms since these molecules are very small. They are gases.
Functional Group
An atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound
Alcohols
Organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups
Alkyl Halides
Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms- fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine- are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
Ethers
Organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen
Aldehydes
Organic compounds in wich the carboxyl group is attached to the carbon atom at the end of a carbon-atom chain
Ketones
Organic compounds in which the carboxyl group is attached to the carbon atoms within the chain
Amines
Organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3
Carboxylic Acids
Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group
Esters
Organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group
Substitution Reaction
One or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms in a molecule
Addition Reaction
One in which two parts of a molecule are added to an unsaturated molecule increasing the saturation of the molecule
Condensation Reaction
One in which two molecules or parts of the same molecule combine
Elimination Reaction
One in which a simple molecule, such as water or ammonia, is formed from adjacent carbon atoms of a larger molecule
Polymers
Large molecules made of many small units joined to each other through organic reactions
Monomers
Small units jointed to eachother in organic reactions
Copolymer
A polymer made from two or more different monomers