Industrial Psychology Organizational

Types of Performance
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Terms in this set (45)
• Most common information source
• Many actively avoid evaluation and feedback
• More likely to know about a worker's typical performance
• Conflict of interest likely when competing for fixed resources
• Discussion of ratings with supervisor increase perceptions
of procedural fairness
• Potential for distortion & inaccuracy
• Minimized with supervisor discussion
• Conflict of interest if used for administrative purposes
Subordinate ratings
• Critical that subordinate feedback be kept anonymous
Customer & Supplier Ratings
• Important from business strategy vantage point
360 degree systems
• Collect and provide an employee with feedback that comes
from many sources
• Often used for feedback and employee development
Administrative trainingImportant for uncommon rating systems (e.g. BARS) or if 1 or more structural characteristics are deficientPsychometric TrainingMake raters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errorsFrame of Reference TrainingBased on assumption that rater needs context for providing rating • Basic Steps: • Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance • Ensure raters understand meaning of scale anchors • Engage in practice exercises of standard performance • Provide feedback on practice exercise • Has been shown to be effectiveConceptual Issues in StaffingStaffing decisions • Associated with recruiting, selecting, promoting, and separating employeesImpact of Staffing Practices on Organizational PerformanceHigh Performance Work Practices • Include use of formal job analyses, selection from within for key positions, and use of formal assessment devices for selection • Staffing practices have positive associations with firm performanceValidityAccurateness of inferences made based on test or performance dataValidity designs-Criterion-related • Content-related • Construct-relatedSelection Ratio (SR)-Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants -SR = n/N • n = number of available jobs • N = number of applicants assessedSelection DecisionsFalse Positive • Applicant accepted but performed poorly • False Negative • Applicant rejected but would have performed well • True Positive • Applicant accepted and performed well • True Negative • Applicant rejected and would have performed poorlyCut Scores-Cut Score: Specified point in a distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected. -Uses • Selection • Placement • Certification/Occupational Testing • EducationEstablishing Cut Scores-Criterion-referenced cut score • Consider desired level of performance and find test score corresponding to that level -Norm-referenced cut score • Based on some index of test takers' scores rather than any notion of job performanceWhy do we use cut scores?• Lower amount of false positives • Manipulate who is in the applicant pool/how many • Ensure a higher standard of predicted performance • We use it based on our selection ratioPractical Issues in Staffing-Staffing Model • Comprehensiveness • Enough high quality information about candidates to predict likelihood of their success -Compensatory • Candidates can compensate for relative weakness in one attribute through strength in another one, providing both are required by jobClinical decision makingUses judgment to combine information and make decision about relative value of different candidatesStatistical decision makingCombines information according to a mathematical formulaUsing Multiple PredictorsHurdle system of combining scores • Non-compensatory strategy: individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage • Establishes series of cut scores Hurdle System of combining scores: Constructed from multiple hurdles so candidates who don't exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration • Often set up sequentially • More expensive hurdles placed later • Used to narrow a large applicant poolScore BandingIndividuals with similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band • Selection within band can be made based on other considerations • Score Banding is controversial Fixed band system • Candidates in lower bands not considered until higher bands have been exhausted Sliding band system • Permits band to be moved down a score point when highest score in a band is exhaustedSelection vs. PlacementSometimes the challenge is to place an individual rather than simply select an individual • Placement • Process of matching multiple applicants and multiple job openings • Strategies • Vocational guidance • Pure selection • Cut & fitMotivation is important for:- Performance • Job Design • Work Attitudes • Rewards/Compensation • Etc. -Nearly all behaviors is at least partially determined by motivation(Motivation x ability) - situational constraints =PERFORMANCEHistory of Theories of MotivationFirst theories anchored motivation in notions of instincts (Freud) • "Instinct" gradually replaced by terms like need, motive, and drive (Maslow) • Behaviorism (Skinner) • Field Theory (Lewin) - Group Dynamics • Goals and Goal StrivingNeeds TheoriesAll humans have basic set of needs that express themselves over life span of individual as internal "pushes" or drives • Needs an are unobservable force internal to the person, which creates a tension when the need is not being met • Because this tension directs attention, effort, and persistence, needs are thought to be motivatingMaslow's Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological Needs • Basic needs like food and water Security Needs • Needs to produce a secure environment Love or Social Needs • Desire to be accepted by others Esteem Needs • Being respected for accomplishments or capabilities Self-Actualization (highest) • Desire to develop capabilities to fullestTwo-factor Theory (Hertzberg, 1966)2 basic needs, not 5 • Needs are independent (not hierarchical) • 1) Hygiene needs • Maslow's physical and security needs • 2) Motivator needs • Maslow's social, esteem, and self-actualization needsERG Theory (Alderfer, 1972)3 basic needs, not 2 or 5 • Levels: • Existence (E) • Relatedness (R) • Growth (G) • Has not received much supportReinforcement TheoryBehavior depends on 3 elements: • Stimulus, response, and reward Contingent Reward • Reward depends on response Intermittent & Continuous Rewards • Intermittent rewards produce higher performance levelsExpectancy Theory (Vroom's VIE Theory)Valence: Strength of person's preference for particular outcome • Instrumentality: Perceived relationship between performance and attainment of a certain outcome • Expectancy: Perceived relationship between effort and performanceEquity TheoryIndividuals look at world in terms of comparative inputs and outcomes • Compare inputs and outcomes to those of "comparison others"Goal-Setting TheoryNotion of a goal as a motivational force • Distinction between goal acceptance and goal commitment -Adoption of specific, difficult goals results in high performance compared to ill-defined ("do your best goals)"Control Theory (Related to goal theory)Based on principle of feedback loop • Assumes individuals compare a standard to an actual outcome and adjust their behavior to bring outcome into agreement with a standard Self-Regulation is compatible with control theoryNeeds-> Motives-->Goals-->PerformanceCommon Themes in Modern ApproachesIntention plays a key role in motivated behavior • Concept of feedback critical in considering anything but the simplest act at one point in time • Motivation can be attributed to collection of distal and proximal influences from both the person and the environment/organizationPerformance management3 distinct components: 1st component consists of the definition of performance, which includes organizational objectives and strategies. 2nd component is the actual measurement process itself. 3rd is the communication between supervisor and subordinate about the extent to which individual behavior fits with organizational expectationsStakeholders in the staffing processLine Managers Customers ApplicantsMotivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)A 48‐item questionnaire that provides a standardized method of assessing six distinct aspects of general performance motivation.