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13 terms

Coach T Biology Exam Terms Part 6

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Placental Mammals
Mammals in which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged efficiently between embryo and mother through the placenta
Insectivores
Insect eaters that have long, narrow snouts and sharp claws that are well suited for digging. Examples: shrews, hedgehogs, and moles
Sirenians
Herbivores that live in river, bays, and warm coastal waters scattered throughout most of the world. Large, slow-moving mammals that lead fully aquatic lives. Examples: manatees and dugongs
Cetaceans
Adapted to underwater life yet must come to the surface to breathe. Most live and breed in the ocean. Examples: humpback whales, narwhals, sperm whales, beluga whales, and river dolphins
Chiropterans
Winged mammals--or bats-- are the only mammals capable of true flight, Bats account for about one fifth of all mammalian species, and are part of this order. They eat mostly insects or fruit and necar, although three species feed on the blood of other vertebrates
Rodents
Have a single pair of long curved incisor teeth in both their upper and lower jaws, which they use for gnawing wood and other tough plant material. Exampels: mice, rats, voles, squirrels, beavers, porcupines, gophers, chipmunks, gerbils, prairie dogs, and chinchillas
Perissodactyls
This order contains hoofed animals with an odd number of toes on each foot. Examples: horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, and zebras
Carnivores
Many mammals in this order, such as tigers and hyenas, stalk or chase their prey by running or puncing, then kill the prey with sharp teeth and claws. Some animals in this group eat plants as well as meat. Examples: dogs, foxes, bears, raccoons, and walruses
Artiodactyls
These hoofed mammals have an even number of toes on each foot. Like perissodactyls, this order contains mostly large grazing animals. Examples: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ibex, giraffes, hippopotami, camels, antelope, deer, and gazelles
Lagomorphs
Liek rodents, members of this order are entirely herbivorous. They differ from rodents by having two pairs of incisors in the upper jaw. Most have hind legs that are adapted for leaping. Examples: snowshoe hares and rabbits
Xenarthrans
Most of the mammals in this order have simple teeth without enamel, and a few have no teeth at all. Examples: sloths, anteaters, and armadillos
Primates
Members of this order are closely related to the ancient insectivores but have a highly developed cerebrum and complex behaviors. Examples: lemurs, tarsiers, apes, gibbons, macaques, and humans
Proboscideans
These are the mammals with trunks. Some time ago, this order went through an extensive adaptive radiation that produced many species, including mastodons and mammoths, which are now extinct. Only two species, the Asian elephant and the African elephant, survive today