NHS Cancer: Cellular Structure & Function
Terms in this set (30)
Which stage of mitosis does this image represent? The spindle fibers pull the chromatids apart and pull them to opposite poles. This gives rise to daughter chromosomes
Which stage of mitosis does this image represent? Chromosomes line up along the equator in the middle of the cell
Which stage of mitosis does this image represent? Nuclear membrane disappears / Chromatin condenses and thickens into chromosomes / Spindle fibers appear
Which stage of mitosis does this image represent? Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes / Spindle fibers disappear / Chromosomes return to there original, uncondensed chromatin form
Time period between cell divisions when the cell grows, DNA duplicates and preparation for mitosis occurs. "Your in _________ when you grow"
Division of the nucleus, creates two identical daughter cells.
Division of the cytoplasm and organelles
Two Daughter Cells
End result of mitosis; two cells that are identical (copies)
Best-known gene linked to breast cancer risk. Everyone has these genes, but some people have an inherited mutation in one or both that increases the risk of breast cancer.
Strand of coiled DNA that is encoded with genes. In most cells, humans have 23 pairs.
Over 250 different cells in the human body, caused by expression of different genes in different types of cells
A linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that codes for a physical trait of characteristic
Some changes in the genetic code that affect the function of the gene. Rare.
Tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
Specialized sex cells produced by each parent for reproduction; sperm & egg in humans
Property where living things become more and more complex as it goes from cellular level (ex: humans are made of cells) to organ system (ex: humans are made of organ system composed of millions of cells).
Undifferentiated cells which can develop into many different cell types.
Cancer that has spread from one part of the body where it started (the primary site) to other parts of the body.
Cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites.
A cancerous mass
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Active in normal cells, work to prevent uncontrolled cell growth.
A gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Contains the genetic "blueprint" or "code" for life. Deoxyribose Nucelic Acid.
Chemical ---> Organelle --> Cell ---> Tissue ----> Organ ---> Organ System ---> Organism
Represents Emergent Properties and the structural levels of organisms. It's based on the concept that "the whole is greater than the composition of its parts." Ex: heart is only made of cells, but if you just have heart cells (sum of its parts) they won't act the same. If the whole heart is there, it will perform the function of pumping blood (the whole is greater).
You're in interphase when you grow, you're in interphase, until DNA starts to replicate. (The mitosis....your cells divide)
Process by which a parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells.
a tumor-suppressor gene that codes for a specific transcription factor that promotes the synthesis of proteins that inhibit the cell cycle
Human cell have __________ (#) of chromosomes.
Cells become specialized for this main reason.
Programmed cell death.