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U.S. History Semester 2 Final

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Treaty of Paris
Under this agreement, the British recognized the United States as an independent nation, the borders of the new nation extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and the southern border stopped at Florida, which was returned to Spain. The west of the Mississippi River also went to Spain.
Louisiana Purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase
Sacajewea
the Native American women who was the personal guide and translator for Lewis and Clark and their expedition in northern Lousiana Territory
Adams-Onis Treaty
a result of the War of 1812, the United States acquired Florida from Spain and fixed the settlement of the western boundary of Louisiana.
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
Texas Annexation
Texas gave up status as an independent nation to be added on to the United States in 1845, triggering war between the U.S. and Mexico
Alamo
Site of battle where 200 Texans are surrounded and slaughtered by 600 mexican forces
James Polk
11th President of the United States; his expansionism led to the Mexican War and the annexation of California and much of the southwest (1795-1849)
Zachary Taylor
American general; invaded northern Mexico; later elected president
Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Mexican-American War
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Alaska
When this state was acquired in 1867, many Americans thought it quite foolish. In fact, the agreement by which it was purchased was known as "Seward's Folly" for the Secretary of State who made the agreement with Russia. 49th state
Hawaii
America attained this state by forcing the King to sign a constitution and reduced his power. The Queen Liliuokalani gave up her country because she didn't want to go to war with America. 50th State
Gold Rush
a period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Oregon Trail
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
Mormons
religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; founded by Joseph Smith; moved from Illinois to Utah, Church of Jesus Christ & the Latter day saints
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Central powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
Archduke Ferdinand
Assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian terrorist. His assassination started the conflict of WWI
Spanish Flu
A pandemic that killed 22 million people, twice as many as the war. 675,000 deaths in the US, which was 5 times as many as we had lost in the war.
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich in Germany during World War II.
Benito Mussolini
Known as "Il Duce" -- the Leader -- the Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II.
Josef Stalin
leader of Soviet Union, also worked with Roosevelt and Churchill during WWII.
Franklin Roosevelt
32nd President of the United States, elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the great depression and led country during World War II
Dwight Eisenhower
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany, President who sent federal troops to Little Rock to guarantee that the nine African-American students were protected and integration would occur.
Winston Churchill
Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid
Erwin Rommel
The Desert Fox. Commander of the Axis forces in North Africa.
Chester Nimitz
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy
Douglas Macarthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II, he accepted the surrender of Japan
William Halsey
Allie leader who fought for control of the Solomon islands in the South Pacific
Yamamoto
Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941
Tojo
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan during WWII
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Blitzkrieg
German word meaning lightning war; the swift attacks launched by Germany in World War II
Lend-lease
Allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
Operation Overlord
The code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Battle of the Bulge
Last german attempt at an offensive strike at the allies
V-E Day
May 8, 1945; Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Kristalnacht
The two days when Nazi troops attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues, also know as "Night of the Broken Glass."
Holocaust
The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Pearl Harbor
Base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941, got America to enter the war
Midway
Naval battle that was a turning point in the war in the pacific; Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers
Doolittle Raid
Bombing of Tokyo that boosted American morale
island hopping
Strategy of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Iwo Jima
A bloody and prolonged operation on a key Japanese island in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped.
atomic bomb
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union
internment
The name for the forced relocation and confinement of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps
Herbert Hoover
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Gave more than $1 billion of government loans to railroads and large businesses under the Hoover administration
Hooverville
Shanty towns built by the homeless during the Great Depression
Brain Trust
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the Great Depression
prohibition
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Bank holiday
All banks closed until government examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
Fireside chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Civilian Conservation Corps
It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Put a limit on how much farmers can produce and payed farmers not to overproduce; regulated crop prices
Tennessee Valley Authority
Federal project to provide inexpensive electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the Tennessee River Valley
National Recovery Act
Set wage, labor, and price standards
Works Progress Administration
Gave the unemployed work in building construction and arts programs
Social Security Act
Relief passed in 1935 to provide Americans with retirement benefits, unemployment and disability insurance. Workers and employers pay into this fund.
court packing
FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
Good Neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Harry Truman
FDR's vice president that took over when he died. Made the decision to drop the atomic bomb
Joe McCarthy
Anti-communist Wisconsin senator who started another "Red Scare" after he claimed to have a list of communists working in the government
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
They were convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union and executed.
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of the anti-comunism/nationalist party in China.
Nikita Khrushchev
Leader of the Soviet Union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis and after Stalin died.
Fidel Castro
Communist leader of Cuba
John Kennedy
President who led Bay of Pigs invasion, led us through Cuban Missile Crisis
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Lyndon Johnson
President after Kennedy died, started new round of reform known as Great Society, which included medicare and medicaid; increased troops in Vietnam
Richard Nixon
Ended the draft and stopped US participation in Vietnam; during his term Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; resigned as a result of the Watergate scandal
Jimmy Carter
Dealt with energy crisis, Iran Hostage situation, high inflation and high unemployment
Ronald Reagan
Berlin Wall separating Germany was torn down during his presidency, contributed with ending the cold war; built up the us military
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet leader who began the reform policies of perestroika and glasnost, ended the Cold War
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism
Red Scare
A period of general fear of communists started by Joe McCarthy
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles
Long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for these missiles in Cuba.
Berlin Blockade
Blockaded east Germany from American supplies. Americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the Germans
NATO
An alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Bay of Pigs
American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Quarantine
What Kennedy called the "blockade" around Cuba
Diem Bien Phu
Site where the Vietminh defeated the French after a long siege
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Trail that ran through neutral countries that allowed North Vietnam to get more supplies even during a blockade.
Rolling Thunder
Bombing of North Vietnam for three years by the US
Tet Offensive
Surprise attacks on cities all over South Vietnam by the Vietcong on the Vietnamese New Year
Vietnamization
US policy of equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves
Kent State
An Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War, wounding nine and killing four
War Powers Act
A law enacted in 1973, limiting a presidents right to send troops into battle without consulting congress.
POW
A person who surrenders to (or is taken by) the enemy in time of war
SALT
Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
Iran Iraq War
Saddam Hussein attacks Iran to prevent the Islamic revolution from coming to Iraq
glasnost
A policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
perestroika
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise
Iran Contra Affair
Scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected
sandinistas
Anti-American revolutionaries in Nicaragua
Berlin Wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Star Wars
President Reagan's proposed weapons system to destroy Soviet missiles from space.
Gerald Ford
First non elected president and VP, pardoned Nixon
Emmitt Till
14 year old African American who was kidnapped, beaten, and brutally killed in Mississippi for whistling at a white woman
Thurgood Marshall
First black Supreme Court justice, lawyer for the Brown v. Board of Education case
Earl Warren
Chief Justice on the Supreme Court for the Brown v. Board of Education case
Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas who opposed the integration of Central High. Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out, then gave them no protection at all.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama which triggered the national civil rights movement
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
An African-American Civil Rights Activist who supported nonviolent protests. He was assassinated in 1968 in Tennessee.
Malcolm X
Leader of the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) who supported violent protesting. At first thought that blacks would be better separated from whites, later changed his ideas
Stokely Carmichael
Member of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration. Broke off from the nonviolent effort
Ignacio Lopez
Established the Unity League of California in order to promote political candidates who would represent Hispanic interests, achieved integration of public schools in California
Summer of Love
Summer of 1967, thousands of people gather in the Haight-Ashbury district of San-Francisco; height of the psychedelic (hippie) counterculture movement
March on Washington
Held to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Bus Boycott
Because Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in the front of the bus (the "white" section), African Americans stopped riding the buses
Freedom Rides
Blacks and whites rode together in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the Supreme Court ruling of unsegregated public places
Civil Rights Act
This banned federal discrimination in public places such as schools and other facilities and banned discrimination in employment on basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin
Voting Rights Act
Act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by Martin Luther King Jr.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
College kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters
Black Panthers
Political party formed by African Americans to fight police brutality. They urged violent resistance against whites. Many whites and moderate African Americans feared the group.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Case in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregated public places and facilities were legal as long as they were equal. "Separate but equal"
Brown v. Board of Education
Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
sit-ins
Non violent protest where African-American students sat down at lunch counters and refused to leave
Watergate
Break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 that resulted in a cover-up and the subsequent resignation of Nixon
plumbers
Nixon's secret group that was created to stop information leaks to the press
Pentagon Papers
Secret government documents published in 1971; revealed that the US government had misled Americans about the Vietnam War.
White House tapes
Tapes of all Nixon's conversations in White house, Nixon edited them - tapes show his guilt in Watergate and he resigns
inflation
An increase in the overall level of prices in the economy
Energy crisis
Many Arab countries created embargo against U..S. for support of Israel in Yom Kippur War, then the Iran Revolution caused U.S. to not have enough oil supplies for energy
Three Mile Island
Nuclear nightmare in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, power plant accident, very close to reactor meltdown and nuclear disaster
Reaganomics
Reagan's theory that if you cut taxes, it will spur the growth of public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks for the rich, "supply-side economics," and "trickle down" theory.
environmental issues
Concern in America, since the late 19th century, regarding the misuse of natural resources and the pollution of air and water.