Terms in this set (25)
How long is brain development?
About when does the brain reach 90% of its full size?
When does the brain develop rapidly?
during gestation & first 3 years of life
• Mostly completed prenatally
• Birth, 100 billion neurons (immature)
• Develop connections with other neurons
• Most rapid during prenatal development and early postnatal
• Peaks in different regions at different times
• Fatty substance expedites signals
• Timing differs across brain regions, and this is related to when you develop certain skills (e.g., motor circuits)
Why does the brain overproduce neurons and synapses?
Apoptosis and Synaptic pruning
• Neurons are overproduced
• Cell death begins prenatally and continues after birth
• About ½ of original neurons die out
Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
• Synapses are overproduced and must be pruned
How is the brain modified by experience?
How is synaptic pruning determined?
Experience: Use it or lose it!
Neurons that fire together, wire together
• Why is brain development is not pre‐wired?
• It requires environmental input.
• Needs to be able to change and adapt to opportunities and demands of the environment
What is an example of a problem with synaptic pruning?
• Involves large muscle groups
• Rolling over, catching, running, hopping, skipping, jumping
Gross Motor Skills
• Grasping, holding, pincer grasp
• Using eye‐hand and small‐muscle •
Buttoning a shirt, tying shoelaces, pouring cereal, drawing pictures
Fine Motor Skills
At what age do children master rolling over?
At what age do children master grasping rattles?
At what age do children master standing?
At what age do children master walking?
At what age do children master building tower of cubes?
At what age do children master the copying cycle?
Why do babies develop motor skills on a similar timeframe?
• Highly canalized trait
• Slight variation in timing, but order is consistent (e.g., cultural variation)
• How does Myrtle McGraw's research support the idea that motor development is highly canalized?
is a psychological apparatus for studying depth perception
The Visual Cliff Experiment
(Eleanor & James Gibson)
• Does depth perception "carry over" to new experiences?
• Infants must learn in each new situation, using testing & problem solving
dynamic process of active coordination of multiple systems within the infant in relation to the environment