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Anatomy and physiology 2
Terms in this set (65)
(True/False) Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
(True/False) Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system.
(True/False) Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the mucus and the presence of lysozymes.
(True/False) interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections
(True/False) pus is made of dead neutrophils, macrophages, and other tissue debris from damaged tissue.
(True/False) pyrogens act by increasing the set point for body temperature in the thalamus.
(True/False) the antigenicity of a molecule is due to specific regions of it called haptens.
(True/False) interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other.
(True/False) helper T cells respond only to epitopes attached to MHC proteins.
(True/False) clonal selection of T cells happens in thymus
(True/False) Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies
(True/False) humoral immunity takes care of intracellular viruses, whereas cellular immunity takes care of extracellular viruses.
(True/False) most memory B cells are found circulating in the lymph
(True/False) some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self-antigens, causing an autoimmune disease.
Lymphatic vessels recover about __________ of the fluid filtered by capillaries
Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in __________.
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Metabolic waste
E. Sodium and potassium
Special lymphatic vessels, called lacteals, absorb dietary _________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
D. Amino acids
The __________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
Which of the following forces does not help lymph to flow?
A. Rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels
B. The thoracic lump
C. The skeletal pump
D. The lymphatic node pump
E. Arterial pulsation squeezing lymphatic vessels
The lymphatic node pump
Which of the following is not an example of lymphatic vessels?
A. Peters patches
C. Lymphatic nodules
E. Diffuse lymphatic tissue
______________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels, and they empty into the ____________.
Immune surveillance is a process in which _____ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.
A. T cells
B. Reticular cells
C. Dendritic cells
E. Natural killer cells
Natural killer cells (NK)
The ________ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration with age.
A. Lymph nodes
D. Pharyngeal tonsils
The only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels is the _________.
Removal of the ________ would be more harmful to a one year old, than an adult.
Which of the following does not belong to the second line of defense?
A. The macrophage system
B. NK cells
D. Gastric juices
E. Interferons and the complement system
__________ lacks the capacity to remember a pathogen or react differently to it in the future, whereas __________ utilizes memory cells to adapt to a given pathogen and ward it off more easily in the future.
_________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites and allergens.
_____________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bateriacidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite.
Complement fixation cannot lead to______.
A. Enhanced inflammation
C. Endogenous pyrexia
D. Bacterial phagocytosis
__________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming Infected.
A. Complement system globulins
When an enemy cell is present, a ________ secrete perforins, which bore a gold in the enemy cell membrane.
C. Natural killer cells
Natural killer cells
Pyrogens is a substance that causes ______.
The first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation is __________.
________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.
A. Impaired use
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _______ and a vasodilator called _________.
Which of these cellular antigens does not participate in inflammation?
A. Cytotoxic T cells
E. Endothelial cells
One group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer cells is ___________.
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ________ during a process called __________.
Neutrophils and macrophages
________ are antimicrobial proteins.
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that ________.
Immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
Vaccination stimulates _____ immunity.
A. Natural active
B. Artificial active
C. Natural passive
D. Artificial passive
Cellular immunity is effective against _______.
An ________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
E. Antibody monomer
T cells achieve immunocompetence in the _____.
T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means they _______.
A. React against self antigens
B. Develop surface antigen receptors
C. Remain alive but unresponsive
D. Die and macrophages phagocyte them
E. Multiply and form clones of identical t cells
Multiply and form clones of identical T cells
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulated _____ immunity.
A. Artificial passive
B. Artificial active
C. Natural passive
D. Natural active
E. Artificial specific
The majority of T cells of the naive lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in the ________.
Which of the following cannot act as antigen-presenting cells?
A. reticular cells
B. Dendritic cells
D. B cells
E. T cells
Helper T cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a ___________.
Antigen presenting cells usually display processed antigen to T cells in the ______.
A. Blood plasma
B. Lymph nodes
D. Red bone marrow
Helper T cells do not secrete________.
Fever producing chemicals
___________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response.
A. Memory T cells
B. Regulatory T cells
C. NK cells
D. Helper T cells
E. Cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
Cytotoxic cells are like natural killer cells because they both secrete________.
Granzymes and perforin
Memory T cells can be yo to ______ old.
Which is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response?
Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has ______________ antigen-bonding site(s).
______ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.
Which class of immunoglobulin provides passive immunity to the newborn?
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly ________.
Helper T cells
Most common allergies are the result of ________.
Type I (acute) hypersensitivity
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n) _______.
Type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity
A person who is HIV-positive has a helper T cell count lower than ______, has AIDS.
Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish _______ from foreign ones.
bronchoconstriction, dyspnea, and widespread vasolidation are all characteristics of __________.
A. Local anaphylaxis
B. Anaphylactic shock
C. Autoimmune disease
D. HIV infection
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