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Selective breeding

allowing only those animals-including horses, cats, and farm animals-and most crop plants have been produced by selective breeding.


Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics


Have many sets of chromosomes

Genetic Engineering

making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

Restriction enzymes

Used to cut DNA at specific sequence of nucleotides

Gel electrophoresis

Mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end of a porous gel, and an electric voltage is applied to the gel. Used to compare the genomes of different organisms or different individuals

Recombinant DNA

They are produced by combining DNA from different sources

Polymerase Chain Reaction

(PCR) Allows biologist to make copies of a particular gene.


small circular DNA molecule. Found in natural bacteria and used for DNA transfer.

Genetic Marker

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid( and the foreign DNA) from those that don't


Contain genes from other organisms


Member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.

Humans use selective breeding to...

...pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms

Breeders can increase the genetic variation in population by...

...inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability

Scientist use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to...

... study and change DNA molecules

Different techniques are used to...

...extract DNA from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA

During transformation...

...a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell, it becomes a part of cell's DNA

If transformation is successful, the one recombinant DNA is...

...integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell.

Genetic engineering has spurred the growth of biotechnology...

...a new industry that is changing the way we interact with the living world.

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