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Actions of intrinsic muscles of the foot

1.hold/lengthen/spread toes on floor while standing
2.propel the foot in stepping and springing
3.maintain arch when ligaments are lax
4.aid in shaping of the foot and toes and completing the curve of the foot in plantar flexion

The bone in the foot that has no muscle attached

Talus, has no action on pronation, supination, plantar and dorsi flexion

actions of 12 muscles with origin on leg and insertion in the foot

all move the ankle and/or tarsus, while 4 flex or extend the toes

(anterior pathway) dorsiflexors

tibialis anterior (supinate)
extensor digitorum longus (pronate)
extensor hallicus longus (supinate)

Tibialis anterior overuse

limitation of depth of plie (acts as an antigravity muscle)

How to prevent tibialis overuse

soften across the front of the ankle, helps to deepen plie by disengaging the tibialis anterior

(lateral pathway) perneals=pronators

peroneus longus (plantar flex)
peroneus brevis (plantar flex)
proneus tertius (dorsiflex)

Perneus Longus and Brevis

muscles that produce "beveled foot"
pass behind lateral malleolus
longus is most superficial

peroneus tertius

some son't have-runs into EDL tendons


-support the lateral arch of the foot due to direction of pull and skeletal bracing
-provide lateral stability to the tarsus on half-toe
-supports calcaneus by passing under the peroneal tubercle
-supports cuboid

Implications for strengthening pronators

-assist with correction of flat lateral arch
-help reduce lateral wobble on half toe
-compensate for morton's short toe or sloped metatarsals

(posterior pathway) plantar flexors


Reasons the gastrocnemius is the most powerful muscle in the body

longest force arm
sheer size
diagonal fibers
accepts transfer of force/power in muscle chain

actions of the gastrocnemius

plantar flexion, knee flexion

when the gastrocnemius is most employed

locomotion, pressing on half toe, when knee is straight


most employed when knee is bent and during adage work, and susceptible to "shin splints" injuries

when to stretch the soleus

after extensive adage work on bent leg

when to stretch gastrocnemius

after extensive work in releve or en pointe


vestigial structure
susceptible to tears with quick direction changes

cause of achilles tendonitis

overuse of gastroc/soleus complex (seek medical attention immediately

(medial pathway) supinators + plantar flexors

tibial posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus

Tom, Dick, and Harry

all pass behind medial malleolus
produce sickled foot
tight with habitual pronation

flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior

prone to over-engagement in dancers (neutralize by engaging intrinsics and EDL)

flexor hallucis longus

prone to tendonitis from overuse, because tendon goes clear down to big toe and gets a lot of friction

muscles that support the medial arch

adductor hallucis
tibialis posterior
peroneus longus
flexor hallucis longus

Functions of the FHL at medial arch

supports arch like the string of a bow
supports the calcaneus medially
supports the talus at its posterior groove

muscles that support medial and lateral arch

tendons of peroneus longus and tibialis posterior, coming from opposite side

implications of strengthening pronators and supinators

assists with correction of pronation and pes planus

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