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Study Guide #3

Psychology 101 Study Guide #3 for Test #3
1. Who believed that personality traits are physical entities located in the brain?
A) Allport
2. Regarding Eysenck's model of personality, which of the following statements is FALSE?
B) Eyenck's trait model is more complicated than Cattell's
3. Using the iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud's theory?
D) conscious
4. The idea of reciprocal determinism was developed by
A) Bandura
5. According to Adler, because of their small size and limited abilities all children harbor feelings of
B) inferiority
6. In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory
A) is more positive and includes the idea of free will
7. Watson and Skinner believed that
B) all behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning
8. Cathleen takes the 16PF test personality. This test will measure Cathleen's ____ traits?
A) source
9. _____ is a belief that behavior involves an interaction between personality traits and situational factors.
E) Interactionism
10. Which of the following people is describing a secondary trait in Allport's model?
B) Bettina, who says, "I like rap music, and I don't like country music."
11. Emmanuel teaches fourth graders. At which stage of psychosexual development can Emmanuel expect the majority of his students to be?
E) latency
12. Mahatma Gandhi's commitment to non-violent solutions to social problems would be considered an example of a(n) _____ trait.
D) cardinal
13. Emma's sense of who or what she should be is her
A) self-ideal
14. Freud believed that personality consists of ____ structures, and they are called ____.
E) 3 / id, ego, and superego
15. An extension of behaviorism that includes internal mental processes and the influences of other people on personality is called
A) social-cognitive theory
16. Paul forgets to call his mother-in-law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of
A) repression
17. The impressions you have of yourself compose your ____, while the degree of liking you have for yourself is your ____.
D) self-concept / self-esteem
18. Ruth has conflicting feelings about getting married that she has not allowed to enter her consciousness. On the night before her wedding Ruth says, "Tomorrow I'm going to my funeral." Ruth's comment is an example of a(n)
E) Freudian slip
19. In Freudian theory, different parts of the body associated with sexual pleasure are reffered to as
A) erogenous zones
20. You meet a psychologist who explains behavior in terms of ego, defense mechanisms, and psychosexual stages. This psychologist represents which view of personality?
D) psychoanalytic
21. Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as true of people with an internal locus of control as compared to those with an external locus of control?
B) They have happier marriages
22. The social-cognitive perspective of personality development is associated with which approach to therapy?
E) cognitive-behavioral therapy
23. Who is known as the leading proponent of phrenology?
E) Franz Joseph Gall
24. In Cattell's model, characteristics of personality that can be inferred from behavior are called
D) surface traits
25. A strategy that prevents awareness of unacceptable desires is a _____, and the _____ makes use of such strategies.
A) defense mechanism / ego
26. Stable and enduring personal characteristics are called
C) traits
27. Darius scores high on psychoticism. In which way is Darius likely to be perceived by others?
E) antisocial, hostile, and insensitive
28. Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed in college. Bandura used the term _____ to describe Herschel's beliefs.
C) efficacy expectations
29. Which social-cognitive theorist argues that behavior is influences by situation variables and person variables?
A) Walter Mischel
30. In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the
B) conscious
31. Which psychological instrument did Rotter develop?
D) Internal-External Scale
32. Freud developed an approach to personality called _____ theory.
A) psychoanalytic
33. Research on the five-factor model of personality has found that the "Big Five" emerge
E) all of the above
34. After 6-year-old Samantha's baby brother was born, she started to have temper tantrums the way she had when she was two. This may be a case of
B) regression
35. In the process of developing his personality theory, _____ used a statistical technique called factor analysis.
A) Raymond Cattel
36. In Mischel's theory, which person variable concerns the ability to plan courses of action to achieve goals and obtain rewards?
B) self-regulatory systems and plans
37. Frank says, "My conscience is bothering me." Using Freud's terminology, Frank is referring to his
A) superego
38. Rapists sometimes defend their actions by saying, "she asked for it." This is an example of
D) projection
40. Frederico is a perfectionist, with a strong need for self-control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe Frederico as having a(n)
B) anal-retentive personality
41. Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?
C) 3 to 6%
42. Physical complaints that cannot be explained medically are characteristic of
C) somatoform disorders
43. Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to _____.
E) hallucinations / delusions
44. Which statement best captures the cognitive explanation for somatoform disorders?
E) When it comes to symptoms, people with hypochondriasis tend to "make mountains out of molehills."
45. Regarding suicide, the text suggests all but which of the following?
E) only take explicit threats seriously
46. Which axis of the DSM addresses global assessment of functioning?
A) V
47. The most common psychological illness among adults is (are)
D) bipolar disorder
48. Schizophrenia is a(n) type of
D) psychotic disorder
49. Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is FALSE?
E) Panic attacks initially seem to occur spontaneously or "out of the blue."
50. Reduction of anxiety that occurs when feared objects are avoided is the basis of which explanation of phobic avoidance?
C) operant conditioning
51. Joyce experiences prolonged periods (several years) of mild sadness. Joyce's disorder would best be described as
B) dysthymic disorder
53. Regarding personality disorders, which of the following statements is TRUE?
D) Of the personality disorders, the most widely studied antisocial personality disorder.
54. Delusions of _____ are the most common theme among schizophrenics.
E) persecution
55. Regarding major depressive disorder,
C) women are more likely than men to be diagnosed
56. Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?
C) 50%
57. Diana has borderline personality disorder. Which of the following best describes the major symptom of her disorder?
A) tendency towards mood swings and stormy relationships with others
58. Frannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people's demands, her therapist may suggest that Frannie's attempts could lead to
A) a distorted self-image
59. Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is FALSE?
C) Alcohol dependence has not been found to be an important risk factor in suicide.
61. Depression has been linked to imbalances in which neurotransmitters?
C) norepinephrine and serotonin
62. Which ethnic groups are more likely to commit suicide?
C) White European Americans and Native Americans
63. Which theory attributes depression to the way people interpret events?
A) cognitive
64. Bipolar disorder was formerly called
A) manic-depression
65. Regarding abnormal behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?
B) The one determining feature of abnormal behavior is unusualness.
66. Models based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of
B) phobias
67. Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is
B) highest among monozygotic twins
68. A class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity are known as
E) dissociative disorders
69. Dhat syndrome is an example of which of the following?
C) a culture-bound syndrome
70. In a manic episode of bipolar disorder, a person might be characterized by all but which of the following?
D) difficulty committing to decisions
71. Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He does back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
72. There are _____ major subtypes of schizphrenia, and they are called _____.
E) 3 / disorganized, paranoid, and catatonic
73. The American Psychiatric Association once considered homosexuality as a type of mental disorder, but no longer does today. This fact is an example of which way that culture influences ideas about abnormality?
A) The same behavior may be judged abnormal at some points at time, but not at others.
74. Nikita experiences periods of extreme sadness that alternate with periods of euphoric or elevated mood. Nikita may be suffering from
B) bipolar disorder
75. A phobia is
D) an irrational or excessive fear or something
76. In the diathesis-stress model, whether someone with a diathesis develops the disorder is determined by
D) stressful experiences
77. A breakdown in logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed on the form of a loosening of associations, is characteristic of which psychological disorder?
E) schizophrenia
78. Which of the following statements best captures the cognitive distortion of "mistaken responsibility"?
E) My partner is depressed because I want to break up
79. Which if the following statements about schizophrenia is FALSE?
D) Schizophrenia is much more common in industrialized countries than undeveloped countries
80. Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a _____ factor involved in anxiety disorders
B) genetic
81. Regarding psychotherapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) There are four types of psychotherapy - psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and cognitive.
82. Paul was not given a promotion. He feels upset and disappointed because he considers himself a failure. In this scenario, Paul's view of himself as a failure is the
B) irrational belief
83. Shannon foes to a cognitive therapist that gives her the following assignments, "Next time you have a negative thought, investigate it to determine if it is valid." Which therapeutic technique is Shannon's therapist using?
A) reality testing
84. Aaron Beck is to _____ therapy as Albert Ellis is to _____ therapy.
E) cognitive / rational-emotive behavior
85. The idea that irrational beliefs lead to emotional distress is at the core of which approach to therapy?
B) rational-emotive behavior therapy
86. During a visit to his therapist, Ishmael was asked to begin talking about whatever was on his mind even if it seems trivial or irrelevant. This is an example of
D) free association
87. Which of the following DOES NOT belong?
A) empty chair technique
88. Major tranquilizer is to _____ as minor tranquilizer is to _____.
A) antipsychotic / antianxiety
89. Regarding cognitive therapies, which of the following statements is FALSE?
E) Cognitive therapists believe that emotional problems are caused by external events
90. Irregularities in the workings of neurotransmitters are implicated in which psychological disorder(s)?
E) all of the above
91. In psychoanalysis, transference is when
D) the client begins acting toward the therapist in ways that mirror the client's conflict-ridden relationships with others
92. Therapeuties that are judged to have demonstrated effectiveness in scientifically-based studies are called
E) empirically supported treatments
93. Which of the following is NOT a key idea from psychodynamic therapies?
D) Therapy will help people develop their unique potentials.
94. Of the following patients receiving treatment for depression, which is most likely to be a candidate for electroconclusive therapy?
D) Damien, who has a severe case of depression that has not responded to other forms of treatment.
95. Antidepressants typically work on which neurotransmitters?
B) serotonin and norepinephrine
96. A clinical psychologist
C) has passed a licensing exam
97. Behavior therapy has its origins in the work of
B) Watson
98. Which of the following statements concerning relapse in schizophrenia patients is TRUE?
B) Relapses occur in about 15% to 20% of patients who continue to take their medication
99. Regarding electroconclusive therapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?
C) For those who receive ECT, the memory of the experience is very strong
100. Which of the following is a type of antidepressant?
B) MAO inhibitors
101. In behavioral therapy, another term for gradual exposure is
C) in-vivo exposure
102. The first U.S. advocate of moral treatment for the mentally ill was
A) Dix
103. Humanistic therapists explain psychological distress in terms of
A) difficulties in pursuing self-actualization
104. Lakeisha has a snake phobia and decides to see a behavioral therapist . Her therapist suggests systematic desensitization. What is the second step Lakeisha will take in her therapy?
developing a fear hierarchy for snakes
105. An analysis of 400 controlled studies evaluation the effectiveness of psychotherapy found that the average person receiving therapy did better than approximately what percentage of people placed on waiting lists for therapy?
106. Which pioneer in psychology is famous for helping a child unlearn his fear of rabbits?
Mary Cover Jones
107. Regarding Asian Americans in a therapeutic setting, which of the following is FALSE?
They tend to emphasize individuality over the group
108. In client-centered therapy, what is empathy?
accurately mirroring the client's experiences and feelings
109. Rachel's therapist asked her to talk about what she had dreams about the previous night. In this case, Rachel is being asked about
manifest content
110. In psychoanalysis, when a client seems to hesitate when talking about a topic or suddenly changes the topic, it may be a sign of
111. At what age does Albert Ellis claim he began to develop beliefs that would later inform his views on psychology?
112. Phenothiazines would be used to treat which of the following people?
Tobey, who has schizophrenia
113. Behavior therapy relies on the application of _____ to help clients weaken _____.
learning principles / undesirable behaviors
114. For which of her clients is behavioral therapist Dr. Williamson most likely to choose virtual therapy?
Ricky has a fear of flying in airplanes
115. Pussin and Pinel were instrumental in the movement toward which form of therapy?
116. Which type of drug typically acts on the neurotransmitter GABA?
117. Regarding prefrontal lobotomy, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Despite its critics, the technique is still in widespread use today.
118. Which of the following is NOT a feature of systematic desensitization?
observing non-fearful subjects interact with fearful stimuli
119. The most widely accepted training orientation in clinical psychology in the United States today is
cognitive-behavioral therapy
120. Psychosurgery is sometimes used today to treat severe cases of
obsessive-compulsive disorder
121. All of the following are symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder EXCEPT
reduced arousal
122. Sources of stress are called
123. Regarding coronary heart disease, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Following a sedentary lifestyle triples the risk of heart disease
124. In order to more effectively deal with stress, Rodney repeats the following whenever he experiences an obstacle, "This is not a catastrophe. I am a good problem-solver. I can find a solution." Which method for removing distress from stress is Rodney using?
replacing stress-inducing thoughts with stress-busting thoughts
125. The most prominent risk factor for coronary heart disease is age. At which age does the risk of CHD increase?
126. The key element in Type A behavior pattern that appears to account for the increased risk for coronary heart disease is
127. Regarding peptic ulcers, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Stress is the major cause of peptic ulcers
128. John was late for work after being caught in a traffic jam. Then he got caught in the rain walking from the parking garage to his office. John's experiences are best described as
129. All but which of the following serve as buffers against stress?
external locus of control
130. Stressors that are _____ tend to have the greatest income.
unpredictable and uncontrollable
131. Which of the following statements is the best description of the relationship between life events and physical health problems?
There is a small relationship life events and later physical health problems
132. During a stress response, the adrenal cortex secretes
133. If Christopher is like the average college student, the number one hassle he experiences is
troubling thoughts about his future
134. Regarding the relationship between life events and stress, which if the following statements is FALSE?
Life events are regularly occurring sources of stress
135. Other factors being equal, which man is at highest risk for death from coronary heart disease?
Ben, an African American
136. Regarding migraine headaches, which if the following statements is FALSE?
Psychological treatments are typically not helpful in reducing the pain associated with migraine headaches
137. Pauline would like to be a full-time college student. However, she also would like to work full-time. She is a single mother and would prefer to not have her child in day-care. The stake of tension that she feels is most accurately labeled
138. Which of the following is the correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome?
alarm, resistance, exhaustian
139. Regarding cancer, which if the following statements is FALSE?
140. Stress and physical illness are linked through the actions of
141. To prevent cancer, the text recommends which behavior?
all of the above
142. All but which of the following are antigens?
143. Among victims of serious motor vehicle accidents, approximately what proportion develops PTSD within one year of the accident?
one in three
144. Kendra takes the test of Type A personality in your text. Responding "yes" to which statement will increase her score on "Type A"?
I tend to interrupt other people when they are talking
145. Which type of conflict will most likely cause feelings of ambivalence?
147. Which of the following is NOT in the top ten list of hassles reported by college students?
problems with parents
148. Shandra experiences tension because she has two competing goals that must both be resolved. Psychologists use the term _____ to describe Shandra's source of stress.
149. Francis has a disorder in which the blood flow to his heart is insufficient for its needs. What disorder does Francis suffer from?
coronary heart disease
150. Which of the following lead to two of every three cancer deaths in the United States.
smoking and diet
151. Which stress hormone is primarily responsible for increasing the stickiness of blood clotting factors which, in turn, heightens the risk of heart attack and stroke?
152. Antibodies are ____ produced by the immune system.
specialized protein molecules
153. Elaina recently suffered a heart attack and recovered. However, Elaina is in a marriage where she experiences a great deal of stress. Because of this, Elaina's risk for another heart attack.
154. Regarding stress and the immune system, which of the following statements is FALSE?
The only way to acquire immunity to antigens is through immunization or vaccination.
155. Which occupations are at particularly high risk for burnout?
nursing and teaching
156. Melanoma accounts for what _____ percent of skin cancers, and it claims approximately _____ lives in the United States every year.
5 / 8,000
157. The practice of stress management techniques is recommended for which of the following physical disorders?
all of the above
158. Emilio arrives at the movie theater planning to see a new thriller. When he gets there, he is surprised to see that a new comedy that he has wanted to see is also playing. He may be experiencing what type of conflict?
159. Other factors being equal, which person is most likely to suffer from the effects of stress?
Claire has a low level of self-efficacy
160. A group of students discusses their grades on their first psychology exam. Which student is making a dispositional attribution?
Arne says, "I'm never gonna pass this course. I'm just stupid."
161. A person is likely to make use of a peripheral route of information processing when
elaboration likelihood is low
162. The concept of a "threat in the air" best describes
stereotype threat
163. Personal identity is to _____ as social identity is to _____.
individual identity / group identity
164. People with a negative attributional style
are less likely to use the self-serving bias
165. Frida is a CEO who must make an important decision regarding the future of her company. When Frida meets with her Board of Directors to discuss this decision, she should do all but which of the following?
avoid bringing in any outsiders
166. When people make dispositional attributions for their successes and make situational attributions for their failures, they are demonstrating
self-serving bias
167. The set of beliefs involved in an attitude are referred to as
168. Which of the following is the best definition of social facilitation?
the tendency for people to perform better when other are present
169. In general, the presence if others ______ performance on well-learned tasks and _____ performance on novel tasks.
increases / decreases
170. Regarding suggestion, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Because of its depressant effects, alcohol use curbs impulsive disorder, including acts of impulsive violence.
171. The famous case of Kitty Genovese best represents which concept from social psychology?
diffusion of responsibility
172. The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as
173. Stereotypes are best described as
efficient and not necessarily accurate
174. In research on deindividuation reported in the text, women whose identity was concealed
were more willing to administer electric shocks to others
175. On their first date, Angelo told Robin detailed stories of being physically abused by his parents. As a result, Robin
will likely feel that Angelo is insecure and poorly adjusted
176. Attitudes consist of which components?
emotions, behaviors, and cognitions
177. Stereotypes are
considered normal cognitive processing
178. Higher job satisfaction is found when
the amount of control people have matches their attributional style
179. Regarding persuasive appeals, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Those of low intelligence or low self-confidence are generally harder to persuade
180. Regarding influences on helping, which of the following statements is TRUE?
In ambiguous situations people are much less likely to offer help than in clear-cut situations
181. In group polarization, group members adopt views that are _____ then their original views. This shift can lead to _____.
more extreme / either riskier actions or extremely conservative actions
182. Research has demonstrated that all but which of the following are factors associated with higher job satisfaction
easy work
183. Regarding cross-cultural differences in cognitive biases, which of the following statements is TRUE?
People from individualistic cultures are more prone to self-serving bias and the fundamental attribution error than are people from collectivist cultures
184. Who conducted an influential study on conformity?
185. Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one demonstrates the behavioral component of attitudes?
A.J. purchases a Toyota hybrid car with his graduation money
186. _____ is negative bias toward members of other racial group.
187. Which of the following is the best definition of obedience?
compliance with the commands of authority figures
188. Janice leads a team of twenty employees. If Janice wants to reduce the chances of social loafing in her team, she should do all but which of the following?
evaluate performance for the group only
189. A homeless women asks Tyler for 5 dollars. After Tyler says no the woman asks for a dollar, and Tyler gives her a dollar. Tyler's behavior is a response to which compliance technique?
190. Compared to people in collectivist cultures, people in individualistic cultures
are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error
191. The elaboration likelihood model suggests that people are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when
they are highly motivated and are capable of evaluation the message
192. _____ play(s) a role in explaining why people obey immoral commands.
Social comparison and legitimization of authority
193. Impression formation concerns
the process by which people form opinions of others
194. Compared to someone from Japan, someone from Canada is
more likely to make the fundamental attribution error
195. Careful evaluation of the content of a message is accomplished via which route of processing?
196. Regarding attributions, which of the following statements is FALSE?
The fundamental attribution error accounts for people's tendency to take credit for their successes by to explain away their failures
198. Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally
easier to persuade
199. People's behaviors do not always match their attitudes because of
situational constraints