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Psychology 101 Study Guide #3 for Test #3

1. Who believed that personality traits are physical entities located in the brain?

A) Allport

2. Regarding Eysenck's model of personality, which of the following statements is FALSE?

B) Eyenck's trait model is more complicated than Cattell's

3. Using the iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud's theory?

D) conscious

4. The idea of reciprocal determinism was developed by

A) Bandura

5. According to Adler, because of their small size and limited abilities all children harbor feelings of

B) inferiority

6. In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory

A) is more positive and includes the idea of free will

7. Watson and Skinner believed that

B) all behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning

8. Cathleen takes the 16PF test personality. This test will measure Cathleen's ____ traits?

A) source

9. _____ is a belief that behavior involves an interaction between personality traits and situational factors.

E) Interactionism

10. Which of the following people is describing a secondary trait in Allport's model?

B) Bettina, who says, "I like rap music, and I don't like country music."

11. Emmanuel teaches fourth graders. At which stage of psychosexual development can Emmanuel expect the majority of his students to be?

E) latency

12. Mahatma Gandhi's commitment to non-violent solutions to social problems would be considered an example of a(n) _____ trait.

D) cardinal

13. Emma's sense of who or what she should be is her

A) self-ideal

14. Freud believed that personality consists of ____ structures, and they are called ____.

E) 3 / id, ego, and superego

15. An extension of behaviorism that includes internal mental processes and the influences of other people on personality is called

A) social-cognitive theory

16. Paul forgets to call his mother-in-law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of

A) repression

17. The impressions you have of yourself compose your ____, while the degree of liking you have for yourself is your ____.

D) self-concept / self-esteem

18. Ruth has conflicting feelings about getting married that she has not allowed to enter her consciousness. On the night before her wedding Ruth says, "Tomorrow I'm going to my funeral." Ruth's comment is an example of a(n)

E) Freudian slip

19. In Freudian theory, different parts of the body associated with sexual pleasure are reffered to as

A) erogenous zones

20. You meet a psychologist who explains behavior in terms of ego, defense mechanisms, and psychosexual stages. This psychologist represents which view of personality?

D) psychoanalytic

21. Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as true of people with an internal locus of control as compared to those with an external locus of control?

B) They have happier marriages

22. The social-cognitive perspective of personality development is associated with which approach to therapy?

E) cognitive-behavioral therapy

23. Who is known as the leading proponent of phrenology?

E) Franz Joseph Gall

24. In Cattell's model, characteristics of personality that can be inferred from behavior are called

D) surface traits

25. A strategy that prevents awareness of unacceptable desires is a _____, and the _____ makes use of such strategies.

A) defense mechanism / ego

26. Stable and enduring personal characteristics are called

C) traits

27. Darius scores high on psychoticism. In which way is Darius likely to be perceived by others?

E) antisocial, hostile, and insensitive

28. Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed in college. Bandura used the term _____ to describe Herschel's beliefs.

C) efficacy expectations

29. Which social-cognitive theorist argues that behavior is influences by situation variables and person variables?

A) Walter Mischel

30. In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the

B) conscious

31. Which psychological instrument did Rotter develop?

D) Internal-External Scale

32. Freud developed an approach to personality called _____ theory.

A) psychoanalytic

33. Research on the five-factor model of personality has found that the "Big Five" emerge

E) all of the above

34. After 6-year-old Samantha's baby brother was born, she started to have temper tantrums the way she had when she was two. This may be a case of

B) regression

35. In the process of developing his personality theory, _____ used a statistical technique called factor analysis.

A) Raymond Cattel

36. In Mischel's theory, which person variable concerns the ability to plan courses of action to achieve goals and obtain rewards?

B) self-regulatory systems and plans

37. Frank says, "My conscience is bothering me." Using Freud's terminology, Frank is referring to his

A) superego

38. Rapists sometimes defend their actions by saying, "she asked for it." This is an example of

D) projection

40. Frederico is a perfectionist, with a strong need for self-control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe Frederico as having a(n)

B) anal-retentive personality

41. Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?

C) 3 to 6%

42. Physical complaints that cannot be explained medically are characteristic of

C) somatoform disorders

43. Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to _____.

E) hallucinations / delusions

44. Which statement best captures the cognitive explanation for somatoform disorders?

E) When it comes to symptoms, people with hypochondriasis tend to "make mountains out of molehills."

45. Regarding suicide, the text suggests all but which of the following?

E) only take explicit threats seriously

46. Which axis of the DSM addresses global assessment of functioning?

A) V

47. The most common psychological illness among adults is (are)

D) bipolar disorder

48. Schizophrenia is a(n) type of

D) psychotic disorder

49. Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is FALSE?

E) Panic attacks initially seem to occur spontaneously or "out of the blue."

50. Reduction of anxiety that occurs when feared objects are avoided is the basis of which explanation of phobic avoidance?

C) operant conditioning

51. Joyce experiences prolonged periods (several years) of mild sadness. Joyce's disorder would best be described as

B) dysthymic disorder

53. Regarding personality disorders, which of the following statements is TRUE?

D) Of the personality disorders, the most widely studied antisocial personality disorder.

54. Delusions of _____ are the most common theme among schizophrenics.

E) persecution

55. Regarding major depressive disorder,

C) women are more likely than men to be diagnosed

56. Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?

C) 50%

57. Diana has borderline personality disorder. Which of the following best describes the major symptom of her disorder?

A) tendency towards mood swings and stormy relationships with others

58. Frannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people's demands, her therapist may suggest that Frannie's attempts could lead to

A) a distorted self-image

59. Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is FALSE?

C) Alcohol dependence has not been found to be an important risk factor in suicide.

61. Depression has been linked to imbalances in which neurotransmitters?

C) norepinephrine and serotonin

62. Which ethnic groups are more likely to commit suicide?

C) White European Americans and Native Americans

63. Which theory attributes depression to the way people interpret events?

A) cognitive

64. Bipolar disorder was formerly called

A) manic-depression

65. Regarding abnormal behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?

B) The one determining feature of abnormal behavior is unusualness.

66. Models based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of

B) phobias

67. Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is

B) highest among monozygotic twins

68. A class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity are known as

E) dissociative disorders

69. Dhat syndrome is an example of which of the following?

C) a culture-bound syndrome

70. In a manic episode of bipolar disorder, a person might be characterized by all but which of the following?

D) difficulty committing to decisions

71. Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He does back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of

B) obsessive-compulsive disorder

72. There are _____ major subtypes of schizphrenia, and they are called _____.

E) 3 / disorganized, paranoid, and catatonic

73. The American Psychiatric Association once considered homosexuality as a type of mental disorder, but no longer does today. This fact is an example of which way that culture influences ideas about abnormality?

A) The same behavior may be judged abnormal at some points at time, but not at others.

74. Nikita experiences periods of extreme sadness that alternate with periods of euphoric or elevated mood. Nikita may be suffering from

B) bipolar disorder

75. A phobia is

D) an irrational or excessive fear or something

76. In the diathesis-stress model, whether someone with a diathesis develops the disorder is determined by

D) stressful experiences

77. A breakdown in logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed on the form of a loosening of associations, is characteristic of which psychological disorder?

E) schizophrenia

78. Which of the following statements best captures the cognitive distortion of "mistaken responsibility"?

E) My partner is depressed because I want to break up

79. Which if the following statements about schizophrenia is FALSE?

D) Schizophrenia is much more common in industrialized countries than undeveloped countries

80. Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a _____ factor involved in anxiety disorders

B) genetic

81. Regarding psychotherapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) There are four types of psychotherapy - psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and cognitive.

82. Paul was not given a promotion. He feels upset and disappointed because he considers himself a failure. In this scenario, Paul's view of himself as a failure is the

B) irrational belief

83. Shannon foes to a cognitive therapist that gives her the following assignments, "Next time you have a negative thought, investigate it to determine if it is valid." Which therapeutic technique is Shannon's therapist using?

A) reality testing

84. Aaron Beck is to _____ therapy as Albert Ellis is to _____ therapy.

E) cognitive / rational-emotive behavior

85. The idea that irrational beliefs lead to emotional distress is at the core of which approach to therapy?

B) rational-emotive behavior therapy

86. During a visit to his therapist, Ishmael was asked to begin talking about whatever was on his mind even if it seems trivial or irrelevant. This is an example of

D) free association

87. Which of the following DOES NOT belong?

A) empty chair technique

88. Major tranquilizer is to _____ as minor tranquilizer is to _____.

A) antipsychotic / antianxiety

89. Regarding cognitive therapies, which of the following statements is FALSE?

E) Cognitive therapists believe that emotional problems are caused by external events

90. Irregularities in the workings of neurotransmitters are implicated in which psychological disorder(s)?

E) all of the above

91. In psychoanalysis, transference is when

D) the client begins acting toward the therapist in ways that mirror the client's conflict-ridden relationships with others

92. Therapeuties that are judged to have demonstrated effectiveness in scientifically-based studies are called

E) empirically supported treatments

93. Which of the following is NOT a key idea from psychodynamic therapies?

D) Therapy will help people develop their unique potentials.

94. Of the following patients receiving treatment for depression, which is most likely to be a candidate for electroconclusive therapy?

D) Damien, who has a severe case of depression that has not responded to other forms of treatment.

95. Antidepressants typically work on which neurotransmitters?

B) serotonin and norepinephrine

96. A clinical psychologist

C) has passed a licensing exam

97. Behavior therapy has its origins in the work of

B) Watson

98. Which of the following statements concerning relapse in schizophrenia patients is TRUE?

B) Relapses occur in about 15% to 20% of patients who continue to take their medication

99. Regarding electroconclusive therapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

C) For those who receive ECT, the memory of the experience is very strong

100. Which of the following is a type of antidepressant?

B) MAO inhibitors

101. In behavioral therapy, another term for gradual exposure is

C) in-vivo exposure

102. The first U.S. advocate of moral treatment for the mentally ill was

A) Dix

103. Humanistic therapists explain psychological distress in terms of

A) difficulties in pursuing self-actualization

104. Lakeisha has a snake phobia and decides to see a behavioral therapist . Her therapist suggests systematic desensitization. What is the second step Lakeisha will take in her therapy?

developing a fear hierarchy for snakes

105. An analysis of 400 controlled studies evaluation the effectiveness of psychotherapy found that the average person receiving therapy did better than approximately what percentage of people placed on waiting lists for therapy?


106. Which pioneer in psychology is famous for helping a child unlearn his fear of rabbits?

Mary Cover Jones

107. Regarding Asian Americans in a therapeutic setting, which of the following is FALSE?

They tend to emphasize individuality over the group

108. In client-centered therapy, what is empathy?

accurately mirroring the client's experiences and feelings

109. Rachel's therapist asked her to talk about what she had dreams about the previous night. In this case, Rachel is being asked about

manifest content

110. In psychoanalysis, when a client seems to hesitate when talking about a topic or suddenly changes the topic, it may be a sign of


111. At what age does Albert Ellis claim he began to develop beliefs that would later inform his views on psychology?


112. Phenothiazines would be used to treat which of the following people?

Tobey, who has schizophrenia

113. Behavior therapy relies on the application of _____ to help clients weaken _____.

learning principles / undesirable behaviors

114. For which of her clients is behavioral therapist Dr. Williamson most likely to choose virtual therapy?

Ricky has a fear of flying in airplanes

115. Pussin and Pinel were instrumental in the movement toward which form of therapy?


116. Which type of drug typically acts on the neurotransmitter GABA?


117. Regarding prefrontal lobotomy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Despite its critics, the technique is still in widespread use today.

118. Which of the following is NOT a feature of systematic desensitization?

observing non-fearful subjects interact with fearful stimuli

119. The most widely accepted training orientation in clinical psychology in the United States today is

cognitive-behavioral therapy

120. Psychosurgery is sometimes used today to treat severe cases of

obsessive-compulsive disorder

121. All of the following are symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder EXCEPT

reduced arousal

122. Sources of stress are called


123. Regarding coronary heart disease, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Following a sedentary lifestyle triples the risk of heart disease

124. In order to more effectively deal with stress, Rodney repeats the following whenever he experiences an obstacle, "This is not a catastrophe. I am a good problem-solver. I can find a solution." Which method for removing distress from stress is Rodney using?

replacing stress-inducing thoughts with stress-busting thoughts

125. The most prominent risk factor for coronary heart disease is age. At which age does the risk of CHD increase?


126. The key element in Type A behavior pattern that appears to account for the increased risk for coronary heart disease is


127. Regarding peptic ulcers, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Stress is the major cause of peptic ulcers

128. John was late for work after being caught in a traffic jam. Then he got caught in the rain walking from the parking garage to his office. John's experiences are best described as


129. All but which of the following serve as buffers against stress?

external locus of control

130. Stressors that are _____ tend to have the greatest income.

unpredictable and uncontrollable

131. Which of the following statements is the best description of the relationship between life events and physical health problems?

There is a small relationship life events and later physical health problems

132. During a stress response, the adrenal cortex secretes


133. If Christopher is like the average college student, the number one hassle he experiences is

troubling thoughts about his future

134. Regarding the relationship between life events and stress, which if the following statements is FALSE?

Life events are regularly occurring sources of stress

135. Other factors being equal, which man is at highest risk for death from coronary heart disease?

Ben, an African American

136. Regarding migraine headaches, which if the following statements is FALSE?

Psychological treatments are typically not helpful in reducing the pain associated with migraine headaches

137. Pauline would like to be a full-time college student. However, she also would like to work full-time. She is a single mother and would prefer to not have her child in day-care. The stake of tension that she feels is most accurately labeled


138. Which of the following is the correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome?

alarm, resistance, exhaustian

139. Regarding cancer, which if the following statements is FALSE?


140. Stress and physical illness are linked through the actions of


141. To prevent cancer, the text recommends which behavior?

all of the above

142. All but which of the following are antigens?


143. Among victims of serious motor vehicle accidents, approximately what proportion develops PTSD within one year of the accident?

one in three

144. Kendra takes the test of Type A personality in your text. Responding "yes" to which statement will increase her score on "Type A"?

I tend to interrupt other people when they are talking

145. Which type of conflict will most likely cause feelings of ambivalence?


147. Which of the following is NOT in the top ten list of hassles reported by college students?

problems with parents

148. Shandra experiences tension because she has two competing goals that must both be resolved. Psychologists use the term _____ to describe Shandra's source of stress.


149. Francis has a disorder in which the blood flow to his heart is insufficient for its needs. What disorder does Francis suffer from?

coronary heart disease

150. Which of the following lead to two of every three cancer deaths in the United States.

smoking and diet

151. Which stress hormone is primarily responsible for increasing the stickiness of blood clotting factors which, in turn, heightens the risk of heart attack and stroke?


152. Antibodies are ____ produced by the immune system.

specialized protein molecules

153. Elaina recently suffered a heart attack and recovered. However, Elaina is in a marriage where she experiences a great deal of stress. Because of this, Elaina's risk for another heart attack.


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