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Embryology Slides - Anatomy
Terms in this set (53)
Animal fun fact: In primitive vertebrates, the notochord serves the spinal cord function of giving the body structure. The nucleus pulposus is just our version!
R & L Ventricles (Smooth), Conus arteriosus
Trabeculated RV and LV
Trabeculated RA and LA
Coronary Sinus & sinus venarum (Smooth part of R. Atrium)
The coronary sinus feeds into the r. atrium, so it makes sense that they're embryologically related. And the origin of the coronary sinus, which is a vein? Sinus venosus.
(Fossa Ovalis is the smooth depression in the r. atrium; embryonic function: shunt blood from the r atrium to the l atrium & bypass the lungs)
Common Carotid Arteries & Internal Carotids
3rd aortic arch
"C" is the 3rd letter in the alphabet
Right Subclavian Artery & Aortic Arch
4th aortic arch
Four rhymes w "Aor" - aortic arch
FouRS - right subclavian
Pulmonary Arteries, & ductus arteriosus
6th aortic arch
6 kinda looks like lungs ^_^
L Subclavian Artery
L 7th intersegmental artery
7 = S!
Seven interSegmental Subclavian
Hepatic veins and sinusoids, sup and inf mesenteric veins
R & L vitelline veins
In the embryo, they drain the yolk sac. "Vitelline" means "of the yolk sac". In humans, blood w nutrients needs to be filtered through the liver. In fetuses, the yolk sac serves the nutrient function (though it doesn't need to be filtered). It's just a highway for blood carrying nutrients!
Also: all sup/inf mesenteric vessels are of vitelline origin (arteries or veins).
Serves the same function as the foramen ovale -- shunts blood past the lungs in the fetus
L Umbilical Veins
(Side note: r umbilical vein regresses. Don't ask me why.)
Veins: Internal Jugular, SVC, common iliac, azygous, brachiocephalic, renal
Subcardinal = renal
Supracardinal = azygos
"Cardinal" means "first". So the cardinal vein is making up the bulk of the venous system in the body; if you're guessing, cardinal veins are a good bet.
Artery: Internal Jugular
We evolved lungs from gills (fish!). Gills are developed in a similar way, where they are basically modified gut tubes to serve a respiratory function. Also, the larynx leads into the trachea, so it makes sense for a diverticulum off the gut tract to have both!
Arteries: Celiac Trunk, Sup & Inf mesenteric arteries
Sup & Mes arteries & veins are both vitelline in origin
Also the yolk sac association (vitelline = yolk sac)
The stomach is the nutrient-provider in an adult, vs the yolk sac in the fetus!
Medial Umbilical Ligament
The medial umbilical ligament is in the medial umbilical fold, in the peritoneum
The urachus is in the median umbilical fold, in the peritoneum
Dorsal Root Ganglion, Pia and Arachnoid Mater
Neural Crest Cells
Anything of neural origin outside of the CNS is of neural crest origin!
All connective tissue in the body is of mesodermic origin; dura mater is basically the CT layer protecting the nerves
Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk
Latin definition = trunk of arteries. Guess what the aorta & pulmonary trunk are?
Esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, upper abdomen
Liver, gallbladder, common hepatic duct
Divides foregut into esophagus and trachea
How to differentiate this vs the laryngeoesophageal diverticulum: you need to separate the trachea from the esophagus in order to create the lungs. The larynx (voice box) is part of the lung system, so they bud out together in the diverticulum!
Unctinate Process and part of head of pancreas, main pancreatic duct
Ventral pancreatic bud
Part of head, body, and tail of pancreas
Dorsal pancreatic bud
Lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, vermiform appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
Distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, upper anal canal
Rectum and Upper Anal Canal
Formed from the fusion of ecto and endoderm
(See left side of picture - pink is ecto, yellow is endo)
Splits into the anal canal and the urogenital sinus
Lower anal canal
Of ectodermic origin
Latin: "procto" = anal. "Deum" = god. Basically the god of the *********.
Lesser omentum (hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric), falciform ligament, coronary and triangular ligaments
Basically all the stuff around the liver
Greater omentum, mesentary of SI, mesoappendix, transverse and sigmoidal mesocolon
Everything but the liver!
Scrotal ligament (M)
Round Ligament of the uterus and ligament of the ovary (F)
It brings the repro organs down, so scrotal ligament is between the testes & the scrotum, and the round ligament and ovarian ligaments secure the female repro organs
Ureters, trigone of bladder
(M only) vas deferens, seminal vesicles, efferent ductules
Mesonephric Ducts (Wollfian Duct)
Anything duct-y inside the pelvis is a safe bet for the mesonephric ducts. (And females don't have that many duct-y things!!)
Internal abdominal oblique
Muscle in abdomen continues as muscle in scrotum
Internal spermatic fascia
Fascia in abdomen continues as fascia in scrotum
Is an embryonic outpouching of the parietal peritoneum, and covers the testes. Should close (fuse) during development. Failure of the processus vaginalis to close results in indirect hernias.
Shunts blood past the liver (since fetuses don't really need their blood cleaned)
Uterine tube, vagina, cervix, uterus (F)
Prostatic utricle (M)
Paramesonephric ducts (Mullerian ducts)
Collecting ducts, major/minor calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, renal papilla
Ureteric bud of the mesonephric ducts (from intermediate mesoderm)
More ducts & tubes & things. Ducts = mesonephric ductsssss!
The actual filtration components are of METAnephric mesoderm
Renal glomerulus, bowman capsule, proximal convoluted tubules
All kidney filtration components = METAnephric mesoderm
Urinary bladder, urethra (Both)
Prostate, Bulbourethral gland (M)
Vaginal vestibule (F)
Endodermic origin; it's formed after the cloaca splits (into the anal canal & UG sinus)
Fun fact: birds and fish poop & pee out of the same opening, called the 'cloaca'. In humans, it's the same thing; we just split it apart during development. That's why all these organs are of endodermic origin!!!
Testis / Ovary
You're only allowed to get this one wrong once.
Ventral aspects of penis, spongy urethra (M)
Labia minora (F)
Labia majora (F)
Superficial back muscles
Part of the myotome, which comes from somites
Deep muscles of the back
Part of the myotome, which comes from somites, which are from paraxial mesoderm
Derived from somites, which are from paraxial mesoderm
Derived from somites, which are from paraxial mesoderm
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