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25 terms

History Final Unit 6

STUDY
PLAY
cottage system/industry
early forms of business contained within one room or small building or farm/examples general store/blacksmith/woodsmith shop
the industrial revolution
- began in the 1700s/18th century
- began when steam replaced animal and human power
- brought about the factory system
- brought about the growth of cities
- brought about the growth of slums
- began in Great Britain
- brought about the growth of cities near coal mining regions
- brought about the growth of cities near riviers (water powa)
urbanization
affected British life in the industrial revolution in that:
- it prompted many people to leave the countryside and move to the city
- it led to crowding and health problems in many cities
- it increased the available labor force
- it led to the decrease in wages because labor supply was larger than the demand for labor
the factory system
- began in Great Britain
- workers had to work in a factory
- began after the invention of water-powered textile machines
- began the division of labor
muckrakers
American journalists who wrote about the problems caused by urbanization and industrialization
the Factory Act
Parliament passed this in 1833; it said that children aged 9-13 couldn't work more than 8 hours per day
suffragettes
women who
- wanted the right to vote, hold office, inherit/buy/sell property
- disrupted speeches of politicians, marched on Parliament, bombed buildings, and burned railway stations
benefits of industrialization
- the creation of new opportunities
- plentiful factory-made goods priced within reach of most people
- growing cities that offered many chances for advancement
- workers acquired skills and education hoping to join the middle class
working-by-the-clock
- all factory workers had to be at work at the same time to keep the system running smoothly
-all factory workers began the day when the factory whistle blew
- that all day people worked at a grueling pace set by machine
- that workers could only stop to eat when the dinner whistle blew
- that workers had a work schedule similar to English prisons
Karl Marx
- predicted that the negative effects of industrialization would cause the working class to revolt
- wrote theories that became to basis for modern communism
- wrote Das Kapital saying how bad capitalism was
- co-wrote the Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels
Adam Smith
believed that society would run best under the free enterprise system/ capitalism
Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith was an 18th century economist who wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the __________________________
Laissez Faire
The principle that government should leave business alone
Proletariat
Marx's term for the class of wage-earning workers and laborers
side effects of the Industrial Revolution
poverty, fire, hazards, disease, and unsanitary conditions led to scientific improvements in health and medicine, which were ___________________________
Edward Jenner
This English doctor invented vaccination, which helped eliminate smallpox
Louis Pasteur
This man discovered that tiny organisms called bacteria, cause many diseases which led to his invention of pasteurization- a way of using heat to sterilize milk
Robert Koch
A german doctor who found the cause of tuberculosis in 1882
sociology
the scientific study of human society
Antoine Lavoisier
the founder of modern chemistry
Willhelm Roentgen
discovered x-rays
Albert Einstein
his theory of relativity says that mass and energy can be converted into each other
Marie and Pierre Curie
discovered that a number of materials give off radiation
Nationalism
- intense love of your country
- intense love of your country's traditions/customs/language
- was the cause of many wars in Europe
Agricultural revolution
the time when seed and farming tools were improved allowing more food to be grown with less people