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cottage system/industry

early forms of business contained within one room or small building or farm/examples general store/blacksmith/woodsmith shop

the industrial revolution

- began in the 1700s/18th century
- began when steam replaced animal and human power
- brought about the factory system
- brought about the growth of cities
- brought about the growth of slums
- began in Great Britain
- brought about the growth of cities near coal mining regions
- brought about the growth of cities near riviers (water powa)


affected British life in the industrial revolution in that:
- it prompted many people to leave the countryside and move to the city
- it led to crowding and health problems in many cities
- it increased the available labor force
- it led to the decrease in wages because labor supply was larger than the demand for labor

the factory system

- began in Great Britain
- workers had to work in a factory
- began after the invention of water-powered textile machines
- began the division of labor


American journalists who wrote about the problems caused by urbanization and industrialization

the Factory Act

Parliament passed this in 1833; it said that children aged 9-13 couldn't work more than 8 hours per day


women who
- wanted the right to vote, hold office, inherit/buy/sell property
- disrupted speeches of politicians, marched on Parliament, bombed buildings, and burned railway stations

benefits of industrialization

- the creation of new opportunities
- plentiful factory-made goods priced within reach of most people
- growing cities that offered many chances for advancement
- workers acquired skills and education hoping to join the middle class


- all factory workers had to be at work at the same time to keep the system running smoothly
-all factory workers began the day when the factory whistle blew
- that all day people worked at a grueling pace set by machine
- that workers could only stop to eat when the dinner whistle blew
- that workers had a work schedule similar to English prisons

Karl Marx

- predicted that the negative effects of industrialization would cause the working class to revolt
- wrote theories that became to basis for modern communism
- wrote Das Kapital saying how bad capitalism was
- co-wrote the Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels

Adam Smith

believed that society would run best under the free enterprise system/ capitalism

Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith was an 18th century economist who wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the __________________________

Laissez Faire

The principle that government should leave business alone


Marx's term for the class of wage-earning workers and laborers

side effects of the Industrial Revolution

poverty, fire, hazards, disease, and unsanitary conditions led to scientific improvements in health and medicine, which were ___________________________

Edward Jenner

This English doctor invented vaccination, which helped eliminate smallpox

Louis Pasteur

This man discovered that tiny organisms called bacteria, cause many diseases which led to his invention of pasteurization- a way of using heat to sterilize milk

Robert Koch

A german doctor who found the cause of tuberculosis in 1882


the scientific study of human society

Antoine Lavoisier

the founder of modern chemistry

Willhelm Roentgen

discovered x-rays

Albert Einstein

his theory of relativity says that mass and energy can be converted into each other

Marie and Pierre Curie

discovered that a number of materials give off radiation


- intense love of your country
- intense love of your country's traditions/customs/language
- was the cause of many wars in Europe

Agricultural revolution

the time when seed and farming tools were improved allowing more food to be grown with less people

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