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Cold War Quiz
Terms in this set (152)
After World War II, the long period of intense rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States.
President Truman's policy of giving American aid to nations threatened by communist expansion.
A wall built by the communist East German government in 1961 to seal off East Berlin from West Berlin.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
An alliance formed in 1949 by the United States and Western European nations to fight Soviet aggression.
Military alliance established in 1955 of the Soviet Union and other communist states in Europe.
The dividing line between South and North Korea.
A general who Truman chose to command a force that was sent to Korea to attack after North Korea attacked Southern Korea.
The senator of Wisconsin; he charged 205 State Department employees, and accused them of being communist party members, but they were never proven. Eventually he came across as a bully, and his popularity plunged.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Citizens of the United States who were sentenced to death because they passed atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets.
Soviet Union leader in 1959 who had gained power a few years after Stalin died in 1953.
The person who led a revolution that set up a communist state in Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Major Cold War confrontation in 1962 --> Soviets building missile bases on Cuba, atomic missiles could reach US within minutes.
A competition for supremacy in nuclear weapons (between United States and Soviet Union)
The world's first artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Government agency that directs the American space program.
Lyndon B. Johnson
President who had to decide whether to commit more forces to the struggle in Vietnam. He didn't think it was worth fighting for, and he didn't think they could get out. However, he sent more and more people into Vietnam causing the longest, most unpopular war in American history.
Vietnamese guerillas who opposed the noncommunist government of South Vietnam.
Fighters who used hit and run attacks.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A system of supply routes from the North, which ran through southern North Vietnam, through Cambodia, and into southern South Vietnam.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement
Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit the number of nuclear warheads and missiles.
He took office in 1981 with the belief that the Soviet Union was the focus of evil in the world. He had a tough anticommunist stand, and he wanted to deal with the Soviets from a position of strength, so he persuaded the Congress to increase military spending by more than $100 billion during his first five years in office.
President Reagan's proposed weapons system to destroy Soviet missiles from space.
A new Soviet leader who rose to power. He believed that only major reforms would let the Soviet system survive. He backed the glasnost, which would lead citizens to find solutions to pressing economic and social problems.
Policy in the Soviet Union of speaking openly about problems.
The conference between the highest-ranking officials of different nations.
Kennedy's Compromise with Khrushchev
Soviet missiles will be removed from Cuba if the US does not invade Cuba.
What did Kennan compare the Soviet Union to?
a wound up toy car (couldn't be stopped until it hit an unstoppable force)
How long did the Cold War last?
What parts of the world fought against each other in the Cold War?
East (Soviet Union and allies) vs. West (U.S. and allies)
Did the Soviet Union and the U.S. clash directly in battle?
Why did the U.S distrust the Soviet Union?
1) Disliked communism and its rejection of religion and private property ownership; 2) Angered by Soviet efforts to overthrow noncommunist governments; 3) Soviets boasted of destroying free enterprise systems throughout the world
Why did the Soviets distrust the U.S. (rest of the West)?
1) The U.S., being the most powerful nation, would try to attack the Soviet Union; 2) They would rebuild Germany to challenge the Soviet Union
What promise did the Soviet Union break following WWII?
the promise to hold free elections in Eastern European nations
Why did the Soviets break their promise?
Because they feared that by allowing European nations to elect their own type of leadership, the new governments would be anti-Soviet and would oppose them (causing challenges for the Soviet Union)
a nation that is dominated politically and economically by a more powerful nation
Which Eastern European country was not a satellite nation?
Who was backed in satellite nations?
Dictators (citizens who protested were imprisoned or killed)
a metaphoric wall dividing the democratic nations of the West from the communist nations of the East
Which locations did the Iron Curtain start and end at?
Stettin (Baltic) to Trieste (Adriatic)
Who coined the term Iron Curtain?
What was Truman's policy known as?
the Cold War Policy of keeping communism within its already existing borders and not allowing communism to spread further
Which two specific countries were helped by the Truman Doctrine?
Greece and Turkey
What was the reasoning behind the Truman Doctrine?
nations looked up towards the U.S. for support in fighting for freedom and if the U.S. failed to provide help and democratic encouragement, the nations would continue with communism and endanger the world
Congress' plan to spend lots of money to rebuild Europe to reduce the treat of communist revolutions in Western Europe
What was the crisis in Berlin?
three of four zones in Berlin (American, British, and French) wanted to reunite their zones but the Soviet zone opposed this because Germany would then be strong and might pose a threat towards the Soviet Union
What did the Soviet Union do about the Berlin crisis?
They blockaded West Berlin from the rest of the world
What did Truman do about helping out West Berlin?
Berlin Airlift (would not trigger war but would provide aid and supplies to West Berliners)
hundreds of American and British planes carried tons of food, oil, and supplies to the 2 million West Berliners everyday (lasted for a year until Stalin decided to lift the blockade because it wasn't working)
What happened to West Germany that made many Eastern Germans want to escape their homes to flee to the west?
West Germany became prosperous thanks to the help of the U.S.; communism in the East was making many East Germans poor so they wanted to flee to the West to prosper too
What was NATO's goal?
to defend Western Europe against any Soviet threat
a new world organization with 51 nations who were members from the start; they all agreed to bring disputes before the body for peaceful settlement
What has the UN been successful in?
fighting hunger, disease, and improving education; providing supplies to victims of famine, war, and other disasters
What were shocks faced in 1949?
1) Soviet Union also developed and successfully tested an atomic bomb (U.S. lost its advantage); 2) China turned communist once Mao Zedong took over (communism spread in 1/4 of the world)
What happened to Korea after WWII?
the U.S. and the Soviet Union split Korea between themselves after they defeated Japan (because it was a Japanese colony)
Why did Korea stay divided?
Soviet Union supported a communist government in the North; the U.S. supported a democratic government in the South
What happened in Korea in June 1950?
North Korea invaded South Korea in a surprise attack and took over Seoul (the capital)
How did Truman respond to the invasion of South Korea?
UN agreed with him to send troops to the South to fight the North Korean forces; would be led by Douglas MacArthur
After first starting off at a bad start, what finally pushed North Koreans out of South Korea?
MacArthur's troops landed at Inchon (right behind the 38th parallel) and North Korean troops were caught by surprise and forced to retreat back to their territory
Why were MacArthur's troops pushed back into South Korea after they tried to invade North Korea?
China entered the war and their troops overwhelmed the troops of the UN and U.S.
What did MacArthur want to do that Truman fired him for?
MacArthur wanted to invade China and attack them too but Truman felt that attacking China would lead to another world war which he did not want
Who took over President after Truman?
What happened in Korea after Eisenhower became president?
North Korea and South Korea formed an armistice to redrew the border near the 38th parallel and have a demilitarized zone along that border
an area with no military forces
Did the Korea war change much?
No- Korea remained divided even after the war and communism remained in North Korea
What did the Korean War increase worry about in the U.S.?
communism in the U.S.
What happened with jobs during the communist scare during the Korean War period?
Many employees (especially gov't employees) were questioned and forced to resign if suspected
Joseph McCarthy (a senator) started a scare that there were 205 State Department employees who were communist members; got a lot of people in businesses questioned and fired
What ended the McCarthy era?
he claimed that there were communist members in the U.S. Army; people viewed him as a bully
Who became Soviet leader after Stalin died?
What is Khrushchev's famous incident?
he banged his shoe on the table at a UN conference
What did Khrushchev's incident symbolize?
Cold War was turning global (U.S. and Soviet Union were now competing for support and influence upon different nations and also upon the UN)
What did the Soviet Union do as colonies fought for independence?
The Soviet Union supported communist rebel groups
What happened with many African nations who struggled with civil wars?
The U.S. backed one side and the Soviet Union backed another side (turning local conflicts into international crises)
nations with enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events worldwide
What happened in Cuba in 1959?
Fidel Castro set up a communist government in Cuba
What did Castro's government do?
took over private companies (including many American companies); many higher and middle class citizens fled to the U.S.
Who supported Cuba?
How far was Cuba from the U.S.?
NOT FAR (90 miles from Florida)
Who was President during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
John F. Kennedy
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Kennedy's plan to round up Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro at the Bay of Pigs
people who are forced to leave their own country
Bay of Pigs Invasion successful or not?
No-- Castro quickly captured all the exiles and jailed up the invaders
What did the Bay of Pigs Invasion cause for the U.S.?
major shame and embarrassment; strengthened Castro in Cuba
What did the Bay of Pigs Invasion cause the Soviet Union to do?
Aid Cuba in more weapons
What did Kennedy learn in 1962?
Soviets were secretly building missile bases on Cuba
What would happen if missile bases were completed?
atomic missiles could reach the U.S. in minutes
What did Kennedy do about the Cuban Missile crisis?
He got American warships to stop all Soviet ships carrying missiles
Was Kennedy's plan successful?
Yes, Soviet ships turned back and Soviet agreed to compromise
What was the compromise between the Soviet Union and the U.S. after the Cuban missile crisis?
The Soviets would remove all missiles in Cuba as long as the U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba
Did the U.S. get involved in Latin America during the Cold War?
YES (tried to contain communism)
Alliance for Progress
Latin American countries did more reforms to improve the lives of their people; in return the U.S. helped by contributing aid to building schools, hospitals, improve farming and sanitation services
American volunteers worked in developing countries as teachers, engineers, and technical advisers
Organization of American States; promoted economic progress in the Americas by investing in transportation and industry
How did the U.S. help Latin Americans fight communism?
helped train their armies and pressed gov't to make reforms; supported military dictators over communism
What happened in Nicaragua?
Sadinistas overthrew a dictatorship gov't and set up socialism; U.S. supported contras to oppose the Sadinistas to prevent Nicaragua from becoming another Cuba
What was the U.S.'s fear after the launching of Sputnik?
that if the Soviet Union had enough technology to launch a satellite far enough, then they'd be able to launch atomic weapons at the U.S.
Who became President after Kennedy?
Lyndon B. Johnson
What happened with the Vietnam War during Johnson's term?
More troops were sent in and the fighting in Vietnam increased
Why was there fighting in Vietnam?
Vietnam was divided with North Vietnam being supported by communist Soviet Union; South Vietnam was supported by the U.S. noncommunist policies
How did the Vietcong start?
Diem (leader of South Vietnam) didn't help the people and they believed he was corrupt, only favoring the wealthy landlords; an opposition group of peasants formed (Vietcong)
Do Guerillas fight in large battles?
NO (don't wear uniforms either)
Who were the Vietcong supported by?
North Korea (became communist too)
the belief that once a certain region was infected by communism, communism would spread to regions around that area
What did the U.S. do in South Vietnam while Kennedy and Eisenhower were presidents?
They only gave military advise and financial aid; trained armies but DID NOT fight
What did the U.S. do in Vietnam while Johnson was president?
They actually got involved in fighting due to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
What happened at the Gulf of Tonkin?
North Vietnamese attacked an American ship
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
allowed the U.S. to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack or prevent further aggression
How was the Vietnam war different from others?
Americans attempted to destroy enemy positions rather than gaining ground
Why was it hard fighting the Vietcong?
The Vietcong would attack quickly, then retreat into the forests or hiding positions and the U.S. found it too tiresome to try and chase after them constantly going back and forth to certain areas; also, the Vietcong couldn't be distinguished from normal villagers and civilians
Why was a draft necessary?
A lot of troops were needed to fight the Vietcong and North Vietnamese because the war was such a stalemate and many troops were dying easily, so the U.S. needed to force Americans to enlist
What did the Vietnam war cause at home?
A new era of rebellion against traditional ways and opposition groups protesting; "hawks" (supporters of war) "doves" (opposers of war)
What was a turning point of the Vietnam war?
guerillas launched a surprise attack on South Vietnam and captured the capital (Saigon); took place during the New Years Holiday of Tet
How did the U.S. respond to the Tet Offensive
They were able to push back the enemy but still the Vietcong had a major advantage and more Americans wanted to end the war now
Who became President after Johnson?
How did Nixon end the war?
he decided to intensify the U.S. and South Vietnamese fighting by hurting Cambodia because North Vietnam used Cambodia for escape and for supply routes
What happened in Cambodia thanks to Nixon's efforts?
Cambodia plunged into a civil war of communism vs. noncommunism
What happened after Nixon withdrew American troops?
1) The two sides reached a cease-fire agreement and all American troops left Vietnam the next year 2) U.S. still sent aid yet the North Vietnamese still were able to advance; 3)Vietnam soon turned all into communism; 4) Khmer Rouge communist took over in Cambodia
a communist who took over in Cambodia and started a brutal reign of terror on their own people (millions starved to death or killed)
What happened after the Khmer Rouge?
Vietnam took over and set up a new communist government that was less harsh but still didn't end the fighting
Effects of Vietnam on the American People?
1) Split country in half; 2) huge cost; 3) thousands died
How did Nixon move to ease world tensions?
1) improved relations with China; 2) used a policy of detente with the Soviet Union
What did Nixon do to improve relations with China?
he visited China and talked with the leaders
What did Nixon do with the Soviet Union
1) visited the Soviet Union; 2) established more trade and contact with the Soviet Union; 3) SALT Agreement
the effort to reduce tensions between the superpowers
Why did detente end?
Soviet troops decided to sweep into Afghanistan and support a pro-Soviet government that was taking over (went against all of U.S. beliefs)
How did the U.S. show their anger to the invasion of Afghanistan?
The U.S. withdrew their SALT II Agreement; forbade their athletes from participating in the 1980 summer Olympics game in Moscow; supplied aid to rebels who fought communists in Afghanistan
What did the fight at Afghanistan do for the Soviet Union?
contributed to the Soviet's downfall because the war was so costly
Who was President during the end of the Cold War?
Soviet Union was the focus of evil in the modern world; U.S. must oppose with all their might
How did Reagan deal with the Soviets?
1) Asked Congress to increase military spending by 100 billion; 2) developed a new weapons system that could destroy Soviet missiles from space (Star Wars)
What did Reagan do about Poland?
urged Soviets to allow Poland to end martial law and restore basic human rights
What started citizens complaining about the communist system?
With so much military spending, there was little spending for the production of consumer goods so many people starved and recieved poorly made products
Who started reforms in the Soviet Union?
Why did Gorbachev support glasnost?
he believed that by talking about their problems, people would find solutions to economic problems and social problems too
How was glasnost a reform?
In the past, citizens were silenced for criticism of the gov't but now they could share their opinions
What did Gorbachev want to do but needed to consult with the U.S. first?
he wanted to cut military spending (had to get on better terms with the U.S.)
How'd Gorbachev get on better relations with the U.S.?
by attending summit meetings
What was acheived at the summit meetings?
Intermediate Nuclear Force; both superpowers agreed to get rid of their stockpiles of missiles and allowed each other to inspect the other side to prevent cheating
What did Gorbachev do about Afghanistan?
he withdrew Soviet troops
How did communism fall in Eastern Europe?
communist governments could no longer control the democratic wants of the people because their was too much opposition and the Soviet union had too many of their own problems to suppress the problems of the satellite nations
Who was the first country in Eastern Europe to hold free elections?
Poland and they rejected a communist leader
What did Gorbachev do about political parties?
he allowed them to form
What did the new political parties do in each nation?
went against communist leaders and voted for their independence
in Moscow, he led a protest that forced Soviet troops to pull back
What happened to the Soviet Union after the attempted revolt?
each of the 15 republics declared their independence and the union broke apart
Who took over Russia?
Yeltsin-- ran a free market system and U.S. helped Russia out
1) allowed glasnost; 2) cut military spending; 3)attended summit meetings; 4)got rid of Soviet stockpiles of missiles; 5) pulled troops out of afghanistan; 6) allowed other parties to form
End of Cold War (reasons)
1) Gorbachev's reforms; 2) people no longer liked communism in eastern europe and fought their gov'ts
Effects of Cold War
Vietnam and Korean wars; America divided; large military spending; huge creation of weaponry; other nations used nuclear weapons; communist scare in america
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