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American Pageant Chapter 14
Terms in this set (45)
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
A German immigrant that arrived in 1860. He was a politician and journalist that fought against slavery and for good treatment of Native Americans.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
An American educator known for her forthright opinions on female education as well as her strong support of the many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education.
First painted portraits of American Indian Life. First person to envision the idea of a national park
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.
A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
cult of domesticity
tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women
Historians' term for the spoliation of western natural resources through excessive hunting, logging, mining, and grazing.
This new system gradually replaced localized cottage industry. Workers were paid by the hour instead of for what they produce. On one hand it decreased the need for skilled labor, but in other ways it increased the amount of specialization due to labor being concentrated in factories.
Drastic changes in transportation (canals, RRs), communication (telegraph), and the production of goods (more in factories as opposed to houses)
Settlers who acquired free land from the government
a political movement composed mainly of women, begun in the late 19th century in order to campaign against women's suffrage in the United States and United Kingdom
Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover.
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Fulton's steamboat in 1807 which powered on/by a newly designed engine. It took the this boat 32 hours to go 150 miles from New York to Albany.
A group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
Semisecret Irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding Irish immigrants in America
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
General Incorporation Law
Allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature
A Mail carrying service; ran from 1860-1861; was established to carry mail speedily along the 2000 miles from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California; they could make the trek in 10 days.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
Was an oath-bound secret society in NYC created by Charles Allen in 1849 to protest the rise of the Irish, Roman Catholic, and German immigration into the U.S. They were also known as the "Know-nothings" because they kept the society a secret.
This machine was invented in 1846 by Elias Howe and Isaac Singer and made sewing clothes faster and easier.
Know Nothing Party
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
After the land in the tobacco region was exhausted, it was discovered that ______ was perfect in the burned cane field, which helped to feed livestock.
twisting the British lion's tail
the slang term for a politician in America in the mid-1800s making negative remarks about the British to his Irish audiences.
Ohio and Erie Canal