22 terms

Rock Vocabulary

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Rock
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter.
Rock Cycle
The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes.
Sedimentary Rock
Rocks made from sediments and mineral fragments. (forms in layers)
Weathering
The process in which water, wind, ice, gravity, and heat breaks down.
Erosion
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
Deposition
The process in which material is laid down.
Compaction
After sediments are deposited, the sediments are pressed together.
Cementation
After sediments are compacted, they are cemented together by minerals that dissolve in water.
Composition
The chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock.
Texture
The quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rocks grains. (how it feels)
Igneous Rock
Forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma (lava), cools and becomes a solid.
Magma
Located beneath the Earth's surface.
Lava
Located on the Earth's surface.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Rock formed from the cooling and solidification (hardening) of magma beneath earth's surface.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the Earth's surface.
Strata/Straification
Layers of rock/the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms from rock or mineral fragments called clasts, are cemented together.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that form when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water.
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that form from the remains of once-living plants and animals.
Metamorphic Rock
All types of rocks can undergo heat and pressure to create a metamorphic rock.
Foliated
The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
Nonfoliated
The texture of metamorphic rocks in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
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