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Animal Farm Study Guide
Terms in this set (54)
What is significant about how the animals arrange themselves as they gather to hear Major? What might this arrangement say about future meetings or events?
The pigs and dogs sit in the front row. The other animals arrange themselves behind the pigs and dogs. In the future the pigs will be in charge, and the dogs will guard the pigs.
According to Major, what is the cause of all the animals' problems?
Man is the only real enemy. Man is the only animal who produces nothing, but consumes what animals produce. Get rid of man and all of the animals' problems will be solved.
What motto does Major give the animals?
He urges them to remember whatever goes on two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes on four legs or has wings is a friend. He also urges them to refrain from coming to resemble man and lists man's vices.
What are the commandments Major gives the animals? Can you think of ways each of them could be considered a vice?
(a)No animal is ever to live in a house.
~Caring more about possessions
(b)No animal is ever to sleep in a bed.
~Becoming lazy, spending too much time in bed sleeping instead of working, luxury
(c)No animal is ever to wear clothes.
~Pride in appearance
(d)No animal is ever to drink alcohol.
~Drinking to excess, forgetting duties
(e)No animal is ever to smoke tobacco.
~Ruining health, expensive habit
(f)No animal is ever to touch money.
(g)No animal is ever to engage in trade.
(h)No animal is ever to tyrannize his own kind.
(i)No animal must ever kill any other animal.
(j)All animals are equal.
~Competition is self-serving
Examine the song "Beasts of England" as poetry. What imagery is present? What is the message? Why do the animals like it so much that they memorize it on the spot? To what emotions and needs does it appeal?
The song paints a vivid picture of the day when animals are at last free of man and all the symbols of slavery such as whips and spurs are gone. It appeals to their dreams of a more prosperous future, an abundance of food and the absence of cruelty, and the need for hope to keep an individual from giving up.
After Major's death, what happens to the idea of rebelling against man?
Led by the pigs, especially Napoleon and Snowball, the animals meet secretly for three months and learn the new system of thought called Animalism. Boxer and Clover, the two horses, help to convince the other animals.
Why don't the pigs like the pet raven Moses' stories about Sugar candy Mountain?
If the animals believe a fantastic world of ease and plenty awaits them when they die, they will not be as eager to rebel against the life they currently live.
What causes the animals to finally rebel against Mr. Jones and his four farmhands?
The farm has fallen on hard times due to Mr. Jones drinking problem. When Mr. Jones gets drunk and neither he nor his men feed the animals on Saturday or Sunday (Midsummer's Day), the animals break into the feed storage shed. They attack the men when they come with whips to drive the animals away from the food.
When the humans have been chased from the farm, what do the animals do?
The bits, nose rings, dog chains, knives, etc. are thrown down the well.
What do the animals do about the farmhouse?
They all file through the house looking at all the luxuries. Some hams are taken out and buried, and a barrel of beer is destroyed. The animals agree that the farmhouse is to be preserved as a museum and that no animal may ever live there.
How does the behavior of the pigs foreshadow their eventual leadership positions?
Snowball busies himself forming committees to solve real and imagined problems. The pigs try to teach the other animals how to read and write, with unsatisfactory results. The apples are set aside for the pigs' use only.
What further examples of the difference between the pigs and the other animals occur in chapters 3&4?
-The pigs only direct and supervise; they do no actual work. No one but the pigs puts forth any resolutions at the meetings. Snowball busies himself forming committees to solve real and imagined problems. The pigs try to teach the other animals how to read and write, with unsatisfactory results. The apples are set aside for the pigs' use only.
What are Napoleon's ideas about education?
He thinks education is more important for the young than for those already grown-up. He takes away Jessie and Bluebell's puppies to educate them.
How is Squealer able to convince the other animals to accept whatever Napoleon decides?
Squealer uses outright lies, "scientific proof" - false, of course - and appeals to the animals' sympathy. He always ends with the threat that Jones will return if the pigs are not obeyed.
What was Snowball's part in this battle?
Because Snowball has studied Julius Caesar's military strategies, he is able to plan a successful defense of the farm. He leads the animals in the attack and is wounded slightly.
Where is Napoleon during the battle?
No mention is made of him or his activities, which leads one to believe he played a very minor role in the battle.
What is the significance of the gun's placement at the foot of the flagpole?
The gun symbolizes the successful fight against the humans. It will be fired ceremonially twice a year to celebrate the Battle of the Cowshed and the anniversary of the Midsummer's Day Rebellion.
Why does Mollie run away from the farm?
Mollie likes being admired, admiring herself, wearing pretty ribbons, eating sugar, and being stroked by humans. She does not like the work on the farm or the hardships she faces there.
What changes have been made in the weekly meetings over the last year?
The pigs now decide all questions of farm policy. Snowball and Napoleon still disagree over almost everything. Although Snowball is more skillful at making speeches capable of swaying the animals, the sheep interrupt him more and more with their chants of "Four legs good, two legs bad."
Explain the windmill controversy from Snowball's point of view.
Snowball wants the animals to build a windmill so they will have electrical power to make life easier for all of them - light and heat in the stalls and labor-saving devices such as electrical milking machines. The animals would only have to work three days a week when it was finished.
Explain the windmill controversy from Napoleon's point of view.
He thinks the major problem on the farm is increasing food production. He thinks the whole windmill thing is nonsense, or so he says, and urinates on Snowball's plans.
What changes does Napoleon make after his dogs chase Snowball off the farm?
There will be no more Sunday Meetings. All decisions about the farm will be made by a committee of pigs presided over by Napoleon. The animals will now meet on Sundays to salute the flag, sing "Beasts of England," and receive their orders for the week.
Why don't the other animals protest Napoleon's decisions?
None of them are really smart enough to bring up any arguments. The sheep begin their bleating, and the dogs growl before anyone can think of a protest. Squealer begins to shed doubts on Snowball's bravery at the Battle of the Cowshed and again threatens them with the return of Jones if they don't agree with Napoleon.
What is the importance of the dogs' accompanying Squealer when he comes to talk to the animals?
Napoleon wants to make sure there is no protest or rebellion against his orders. In addition to Squealer's natural ability to convince, he has three vicious dogs to back him up. Naturally, no one protests.
How much work are the animals now doing?
Although they already work a 60-hour week during spring and summer, Napoleon informs them that they can volunteer for Sunday afternoon work, as well. But if any animal chooses not to volunteer then they will have his rations cut in half.
Why does Napoleon decide to engage in trade with neighboring farms?
Because certain items such as paraffin oil and dog biscuits are in short supply, Napoleon decides to sell a stack of hay and part of the wheat crop. Later they may have to sell some of the hens' eggs.
How do the animals react?
They are troubled and think they remember a resolution against trade with humans. Squealer later explains the decision and asks if they have seen such a resolution written down, but no such record is found.
How is the windmill destroyed? Why does Napoleon blame Snowball?
A violent November storm blows it down. Instead of admitting that the windmill's walls were not thick enough to support it against a strong wind, Napoleon blames Snowball for blowing it up.
Why does Napoleon insist the windmill must be rebuilt immediately?
Napoleon wanted to prevent the animals from becoming too discouraged to begin building if they wait until spring. By keeping the animals busy building a windmill that will supposedly ease life for all of them, the animals will forget how miserably cold and hungry they are during the hard winter.
Why does Napoleon order that the hens' eggs be sold?
The hens have to give up their eggs because their is no food and animals are nearly starving. Their eggs are being sold so that meal and grain can be purchased to feed everyone.
How does Napoleon react when the hens rebel against his orders?
He orders the hens food rations to be cut off. And if any animal gives and bit of food to them then they will be killed as punishment. The dogs enforce it and nine hens die and about five of them give up their protestation.
Why does Napoleon revive the threat of the farm being sabotaged by Snowball?
Snowball happens to be the perfect goat to blame why everything goes wrong. They need an outside enemy to hate and to blame the things that go wrong on. The animals want to disagree but can't out of fear. Then they soon agree with Boxer that if Napoleon says it is so then it must be.
Explain why the animals confessed to being traitors. Or is there any explanation?
They are probably guilty of not wholeheartedly supporting Napoleons policies. They don't expect to be killed for it, that's for sure. Those that confess about being a traitor are killed on the spot.
Why does Napoleon order the animals to stop singing "Beasts of England?"
Because the rebellion they were in is now over and the pigs are in control of the farm. One animal might reslize that one rebellion isn't enough and choose to lead another. They first have to realize that having the pigs in control is just the same and as bad as when Mr. Jones was in charge of things. The bleating of the sheep, however, keep anyone from rebelling again.
What purpose is served by the production figures Squealer reads to the animals?
The pigs fooled everyone by having Squealer read to them and describe how what their doing is helping them alot more then before. And that their gaining a lot more by what their doing. Nobody can argue with the facts that are being presented to them.
How is Napoleon becoming more and more like a typical dictator?
He has many different titles for his name. He has his own apartment in the house. He has his own personal food taster and always either walks around with bodyguards or an entourage.
Describe the sale of the stack of lumber. How does Napoleon outwit himself?
Napoleon was supposed to sell the lumber to Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick. Instead he choose to mess with them and have them go against each other until he gets the exact price he wanted for the lumber. He insisted that they pay in banknotes, but they turn out to be forgeries. Then when Frederick decides to attack the farm Pilkington decides not to help Napoleon.
What makes the battle against Frederick's men different from the Battle of the Cowshed?
There is no defense planned out for the farm. The men have more weapons and this time their all a bit more prepared for what going to happen. And the animals that don't have a leader choose to hid from the battle so their more likely to survive.
Why do the men blow up the windmill?
The humans had seen the windmill as a sign of the pigs ability to run the farm. They thought by destroying it then the animals would give in and give back the farm to Mr. Jones.
The animals celebrate a victory, but at what cost?
The windmill is destroyed and boxer has a split hoof. Most of the animals are all dead except Squealer and all the rest of the animals that chose to hide.
Describe the whisky incident. Why would Orwell make this scene somewhat humorous?
The whisky incident was supposed to be humorous because it's pigs drinking and getting majorly drunk. The pigs thoughts were to get rid and bane all alcoholic drinks out of fear of death from drinking to much. When the pig, however, sober up they decide that drinking isn't so bad anymore. They learn how to make beer and take whats supposed to be the retirement home for animals to plant barely.
Why are the animals so easily fooled, even when they find Squealer with a ladder and white paint beside the barn at night?
Most of the animals there can't read or understand the commandments written on the wall. Their all naive, except for Benjamin who still chooses not to say anything.
What is happening to Boxer?
Boxer is working really hard and is working himself to death. He isn't healing at all from his injuries because he sticks to his motto no matter how much pain he's in.
What are living conditions like for all of the animals except the pigs and dogs?
The animals are being given less food but are working a lot harder then before. Rations are being cut a lot less and Squealer tell them how they benefit from it and the animals believe him.
Why does Napoleon allow Moses to return and to tell his stories about Sugar candy Mountain?
Every animals hope is either very low or gone so he thinks Moses stories will help make things positive. They need hope about life after death. With this promise, they will put up more privation since they will eventually be rewarded. People generally need to look forward to something.
What happens to Boxer? How do the animals accept it?
Boxer hurts himself while he's dragging stone from the windmill. He's taken to the knacker and is made to be glue, fertilizer, and dog food. Squealer tells everyone that Boxer dies at the hospital and repeats his final words to everyone. Benjamin is the only one who understands what's really going on, and everyone is trying to believe what Squealer told them. The money that the pigs get for Boxer is spent on whisky instead.
Of what kind of person does Benjamin remind you? Give some examples. What is your opinion of such people? What makes people behave this way?
Benjamin happens to be a very interesting character. He's cynical and determined not to do anything or get involved in the situation. If he was a bit more agressive before then maybe he might have been able to save boxer. He's, however, like every other person that know's something is going on but chooses to ignore it because it doesn't involve him.
What changes have the years brought to the farm?
Animals have be bought to replace most of the dead ones. The windmill has been fixed but is not being used to gain energy for all the animals. Its now being used to mill corn to make money for the pigs. Most of the animals that were alive during the rebellion are now dead.
How does Orwell make fun of bureaucracy?
The pigs begin to spend hours typing up reports and memos. They are then burned in the furnace. The pigs and dogs don't accomplish anything from writing the paper work but still have their great big appetite.
How do the animals now feel about their social order, their farm?
All the animals, including the new ones, are happy to be apart of the only farm family in England. They are all happy that at least at the farm there are no people walking on two legs.
What drastic actions do the pigs use to shatter the animals' complacency?
The pigs begin to wear the Jones clothing and Napoleon carries a whip with him now. The pigs begin to walk on two legs and the sheep have been taught a new motto "Four legs good, two legs better."
What is the new commandment and how has it been true from the beginning?
"ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS." Since the beginning this commandment has been true to all of them. When the pigs taught themselves how to read and write and when Napoleon began drinking milk.
At the conference with neighboring farmers, what new changes does Napoleon point out?
Napoleon points out the new changes around the farm. He points out how the pigs kind of own the farm in their own way now. And the name of the farm is now changed back to "The Manor Farm." All the traces of rebellion have been erased.
What happens to the pigs' appearance?
As the animals are watching the pig start to resemble the humans. The animals can finally see their true situation. There is now no difference between them but it's to late to do anything.
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