80 terms

OrgPsych Midterm 2

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Ingratiation
A social influence technique that uses flattery to increase social acceptance
Foot in the door
A social influence technique based on prior compliance

1st request: small, easily doable
2nd request: large
Door in the face
A social influence technique based on prior rejection

1st request: large, unfeasible and denied
2nd request: much smaller, the result that you wanted

Works best with strangers
Low Ball
A social influence technique based on prior agreement/commitment

1st request: a vague notion, makes it seem smaller than in reality
2nd request: the true request, cost is much higher than led to believe
Organizational Power
Position power
Individual Power
Personal characteristics
Reward Power
A base of power that controls reinforcement
Coercive Power
A base of power that controls punishment
Legitimate Power
A base of power based on position
Expert Power
A base of power based on knowledge
Referent Power
A base of power based on a role model
How to increase power
-form a coalition
-find a powerful mentor
-control access to information
-project the right image
-co-optation
-reciprocity
Functional Politics
Self-serving that helps the organization
Dysfunctional Politics
Self-serving that hurts organization
Cause of politicking
-competition for scarce resources
-subjective evaluation
-long-term projects
-incompetence
-group work/ decisions
Consequences of politicking
Decreased:
-communication
-performance
-job satisfaction
-good citizenship behavior
-organizational commitment

Increase:
-absenteeism
-turnover
Open System
A system in which information flows efficiently in and out of the organizational structure
Closed System
A system in which information cannot flow in and out of the organizational structure
Bureaucratic Model
A traditional organizational structure typified by a well-defined authority hierarchy and strict rules governing work behavior
Line-Staff Model
A traditional organizational structure composed of one group of employees who achieve the goals of the organization (the line), and another group who support the line (staff)
Non-Traditional Organizational Structure
Organizational structures characterized by less-formalized work roles and procedures
Functional Design
A non-traditional organizational structure that divides the organization into departments based on the functions or tasks they perform
Divisional Design
A non-traditional organizational structure that divides the organization according to types of products or customers
Matrix Design
A non-traditional organizational structure that blends functional and divisional designs
Project Task Force
A non-traditional organization of workers who are assembled temporarily to complete a specific job or project
Chain of Command
The number of authority levels in an organization
Flat Organization
An organization with a short chain of command
Tall Organization
An organization with a long chain of command
Span of Control
The number of workers who must report to a single supervisor
Narrow Span
Few workers report to a single supervisor
Wide Span
Many workers report to a single supervisor
Small batch production requires a _____ span and _____ chain of command
Moderate (20-30), flat
Mass production requires a _____ span and _____ chain of command
Wide (40-50), taller
Continuous production requires a _____ span and _____ chain of command
Narrow (10-20), very tall
Analyzability
Whether the technology can be broken down into simple, objective steps or procedures
Predictability
How many exceptions to the rules
A craft task has _____ analyzability and _____ predictability
Low, High
An engineering task has _____ analyzability and _____ predictability
Low, Low
A routine task has _____ analyzability and _____ predictability
High, High
A non-routine task has _____ analyzability and _____ predictability
High, Low
ABC Model
Affective: emotions and feeling toward an object
Behavior: future tendency to act
Cognitive: ideas and beliefs
Communicator Effects
The effects that the sender or source has on the message
Communication Effects
The effects that the content of the message itself has on the message
Reactance
Doing the opposite of what the individual or group wants you to do
Organigram
Formal communication
Sociogram
Informal communication
The Grapevine
The informal flow of information in the workplace
Steps of Rumor Transmission
1. Leveling: details disappear, only remember highlights
2. Assimilation: Add made up details
3. Sharpening: Add modifiers
Wheel Pattern
...
Y Pattern
...
Chain Pattern
...
Circle Pattern
...
Open Pattern
...
Prescriptive Norm
Informal guideline for what you should do
Proscriptive Norm
Informal guideline for what you should not do
Additive Task
Independent workers, 1+2+3+4=output
Conjunctive Task
Dependent workers, slowest worker sets the pace
Disjunctive Task
Fastest worker sets the pace
Discretionary Task
Any combination of additive, conjunctive, and disjunctive tasks (requires coordination)
Social loafing ____ process loss
Does not equal
Social Impact Theory
The larger the group, the less impact you have on each individual member
Social Facilitation
Change in behavior that occurs when a species believe they are in the presence of other members of the species
Organizational Development
The process of preparing for and managing change in organizations
Action Research
A process that involves collecting data, diagnosing organizational problems, and developing strategies to take action to solve them
Survey Feedback
A technique of using data about organizational members' feelings and concerns as the basis for planned change
T-groups
A process of increasing workers' awareness of their own and other members' behavior
Team Building
The development of teams of workers to focus on ways to improve group performance
Process Consultation
A long-term method of helping an organization to develop problem-solving strategies
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A goal-setting technique designed to increase worker commitment to the attainment of personal and organizational goals
Quality Circles
Groups of employees who meet regularly to discuss quality-related work problems
Universalist Theories
Theories that look for the major characteristics common to all effective leaders.
Contingency Theories
Theories that look at the interaction of characteristics of both the leader and the situation
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories derived from studies at Ohio State and University of Michigan that focus on the behaviors common to effective leaders
1st Vroom and Yetton Decision Strategy
1. Autocratic decision I: The leader makes the decision alone, using information available only to the leader.
2nd Vroom and Yetton Decision Strategy
2. Autocratic decision II: The leader obtains information from subordinates and then makes the decision alone.
3rd Vroom and Yetton Decision Strategy
3. Consultative decision I: The leader shares the problem with relevant subordinates and gets their ideas and input individually, but makes the decision alone.
4th Vroom and Yetton Decision Strategy
4. Consultative decision II: The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, gets their collective input, but makes the decision alone.
5th Vroom and Yetton Decision Strategy
5. Group decision: The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group and together they make a consensus decision.
Great Man/Woman Theory
Some people are natural, born leaders
Trait Theory
Certain personality traits, or characteristics, that are common to all effective leaders