Upgrade to remove ads
Patho/Pharm: chapter 49: immunizing drugs
Terms in this set (68)
what is an immune response
Antigens (foreign proteins): from an invading organism; specific information is imprinted into a cellular "memory bank" of the immune system; the body can then effectively fight any future invasion by that same organism by mounting an immune response
what are antibodies
immunoglobulin molecules that have antigen-specific amino acid sequences
what are immunoglobulins
glycoprotein molecules synthesized by the humoral immune system for the purpose of destroying all substances that the body recognizes as foreign
what is artificial active immunization
body is clinically exposed to a relatively harmless form of an antigen that does not cause an actual infection
what is natural active immunization
person acquires immunity by surviving the disease itself and producing antibodies to the disease-causing organism
in artificial active immunization, The immune system is stimulated and "__________" this antigen if subsequent exposures occur.
artificial passive immunization
administration of serum or concentrated immunoglobulins
what occurs during passive immunization
The inoculated person is given the substance needed to fight off the invading microorganism.
what type of immunization bypasses the host's immune system
artificial passive immunization
what is natural passive immunization
antibodies are transferred from the mother to her infant in breast milk or through the bloodstream via the placenta during pregnancy
what are Biological Antimicrobial Drugs also called
what do Biological Antimicrobial Drugs include
-Toxoids and vaccines (immunizing biologicals)
what is Biological Antimicrobial Drugs used for
to prevent, treat, or cure infectious diseases
what are toxoids and vaccines known as
immunizing biologics, and they target a particular infectious microorganism.
what are toxoids detoxified(weakened or attentuated) with
chemicals or heat
what are toxoids
Antigenic (foreign) preparations of bacterial exotoxins
once detoxified, can toxoids be reverted back to a toxic form
what do toxoids stimulate
one's immune system to produce a specific antibody
-Artificial active immune response
what do toxoids protect
These antibodies protect against future exposures
what type of bacteria is diphtheria and tetanus caused by
what are vaccines
Suspensions of live, attenuated (weakened) or killed (inactivated) microorganisms
what do vaccines do
stimulate the production of antigens against a specific antibody
vaccinations with what provide lifelong immunity
live bacteria or virus
vaccinations with what provide partial immunity and booster shots are needed periodically
killed bacteria or virus
what is an antibody titer
Measure of how many antibodies to a given antigen are present in the blood and is used to assess whether enough antibodies are present to protect the body effectively against the particular pathogen
what is a booster shot
another dose of the vaccine is given to restore the antibody titers to a level that can protect the person against the infection
what are examples of active immunizing drugs
-Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (tuberculosis)
-Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids: several forms
-Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine
-Hepatitis A and B virus vaccines
what are some other examples of active immunizing drug examples
-Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine, live: several forms
-Pneumococcal bacterial vaccines
-Human papilloma virus vaccine (Gardasil)
-Poliovirus vaccine: several forms
-Rabies virus vaccine
Before administering Gardasil, it is most important for the nurse to assess the patient for an allergy to:
Correct answer: A
Rationale: The nurse should not administer the papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil, Cervarix) to patients with allergies to yeast or patients who have a documented allergic reaction to the first injection of the vaccine.
the list of active immunizing drug examples: what other types are there
-Smallpox virus vaccine
-Varicella virus vaccine (chickenpox)
-Yellow fever virus vaccine
A patient has an order for the varicella vaccine. It is most important for the nurse to assess the patient for:
a. use of high dose systemic steroids in the past month.
b. allergy to aspirin.
c. allergy to eggs.
d. history of hypertension
Correct answer: A
Rationale: Varicella vaccine is not to be given to immunodeficient patients or to patients who have received high doses of systemic steroids in the previous month. It is also recommended that salicylates be avoided for 6 weeks after administration of varicella vaccine because of the possibility of Reye's syndrome.
what is passive immunization
-The substances needed to fight off invading microorganisms are given directly to a person.
-immune system is bypassed
how long does passive immunization last
only until the injected immunoglobulins are removed from the person's immune system by the reticuloendothelial system.
passive immunization is what but works faster
Short-lived compared with active immunization
what are examples of artificial passive immunization
immunization with tetanus immunoglobulin, hepatitis immunoglobulin, rabies immunoglobulin, and snakebite antivenin
how are antibodies transferred from mother to fetus
how are antibodies transferred from mother to infant
how else are antibodies transferred
Naturally acquired passive immunity
what is an antitoxin
purified antiserum that is usually obtained from horses inoculated with the toxin
what are immunoglobins
concentrated preparation containing predominantly immunoglobulin G and is harvested from a large pool of blood donors
what are snake and spider antivenins(antivenom)
antiserum containing antibodies against a venom, which is a poison secreted by an animal such as a reptile, insect, or other arthropod
where are antivenins usually obtained from
Most antivenins are obtained from animals (usually horses) that have been injected with the particular venom.
antivenin contains what
contains immunoglobulins that can neutralize the toxic effects of the venom
what type of technology is antivenin
what are examples of passive immunizing drugs
(Pit viper, coral snake
Black widow spider)
-Hepatitis B immune globulin
-Immunoglobulin, various forms
-Rabies immunoglobulin (human)
-Rho(D) immune globulin (RhoGAM)
A patient with AIDS was cut by a rusty piece of metal while walking outside. He recalls that his last tetanus booster was more than 20 years ago. Which immunization therapy will he receive at this time?
a. He cannot receive any type of immunization therapy.
b. Tetanus immunoglobulin
c. Tetanus toxoid, adsorbed
d. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) booster
Correct answer: B
Rationale: Vaccines and toxoids rely on a person's immune system to work. Patients who are immunocompromised (as in those receiving immunosuppressive therapy and those with AIDS) may not benefit from vaccines or toxoids because they are unable to mount an immune response. In these situations, passive immunizing drugs such as immunoglobulins are warranted.
what are the indications of active immunization
-Prevents infection caused by bacterial toxins or viruses
-Provides long-lasting or permanent immunity
what are the indications of passive immunization
-Antitoxins, antivenins, immunoglobulins
-Minimizes effects of poisoning by the venoms of spiders and certain snakes
-Provides quick immunity before a person's own immune system has a chance to make antibodies (such as in cases of exposure to hepatitis B or rabies viruses)
what does the center for disease control and prevention/department of health and human Services recommendations for adult and pediatric immunizations (U.S.) provide
Provide specific dosages and intervals for immunizations
what is linked with immunizations that affect children
is there any scientific data to support a link between autism and vaccines
what is the cause of immunization controversy
thimerosal(no longer been used in the preparation of vaccines)
what is the hepatitis b virus vaccine
vaccine (inactivated) (Recombivax HB, Engerix-B) is a noninfectious viral vaccine containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
what is antienic HBSAG used for
used to promote active immunity to hepatitis B infection in persons considered at high risk for potential exposure to the hepatitis B virus or HBsAg-positive materials (e.g., blood, plasma, serum).
who is recommended to get the hepatitis b virus vaccine
all children (usually started shortly after birth) and adults with diabetes mellitus
how is influenza given
FluMist is given intranasally, whereas the others are given intramuscularly
who does the CDC say should get the influenza vaccine
all people older than 6 months of age should receive the influenza vaccine
which dose is specifically indicated for older adults.
the influenza vaccine: "high-dose" Fluzone
what are some other vaccines
-Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine (live)
Pneumococcal vaccine, polyvalent and 13 valent
Poliovirus vaccine (inactivated)
Rabies virus vaccine
Human papillomavirus vaccine
Herpes zoster vaccine
Varicella virus vaccine
what are some other passive immunizing drugs
Hepatitis B immunoglobulin
The zoster vaccine (Zostavax) is used in which situation?
a. To prevent chickenpox in children
b. To prevent chickenpox in children who have been exposed to herpes zoster
c. To prevent postherpetic neuralgia in patients who have shingles
d. To prevent reactivation of the zoster virus that causes shingles in patients age 60 years and older
Correct answer: D
Rationale: Zoster vaccine (Zostavax) is a vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster. The vaccine is recommended for patients 60 years and older to prevent reactivation of the zoster virus that causes shingles. The vaccine does not prevent postherpetic neuralgia. It can be given to patients who have already had shingles. The vaccine should not be used for the prevention of chickenpox and should not be given to children.
what are some minor adverse effects
Fever, minor rash, soreness at injection site, itching, adenopathy
what are some severe adverse effects
Fever higher than 103° F, encephalitis, convulsions, anaphylactic reaction, dyspnea, others
how are minor reactions treated
Treated with acetaminophen and rest
how are serious or unusual reactions treated
-Report serious or unusual reactions to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)
After immunizations at a well-baby check-up, a mother notes that her infant has redness and swelling at the injection site, is irritable, and has a fever of 99.9° F. She calls the clinic and is worried about her baby. Which action by the nurse is appropriate?
a. Tell the mother there's nothing to worry about and that these symptoms are normal and will go away.
b. Tell the mother that she should bring her baby in to the office for an examination.
c. Tell the mother that acetaminophen and rest should help to alleviate these symptoms, which are not unusual after immunizations.
d. Complete a VAERS form.
Correct answer: C
Rationale: These minor reactions may be treated with acetaminophen and rest. Reactions that are more serious or unusual should be reported with a VAERS form.
If discomfort occurs at the injection site what should you do
apply warm compresses and give acetaminophen
should you give aspirin to children
This set is often in folders with...
Patho/Pharm chapter 29: fluids and electrolytes
Patho/Pharm Chapter 8: Pain
Patho/Pharm Chapter: 10
Patho/Pharm Chapter 11 General and Local Anesthesia
You might also like...
Pharm ch 49 - Immunizing drugs and biochemical ter…
Pharm ch 49 - Immunizing drugs and biochemical ter…
Immunosuppressant, Immunizing, and Biochemical Ter…
Antiviral Drugs- Ch 40
Other sets by this creator
Chapter 9-- Part 2
Chapter 8- Frameworks
Chapter 6-Objectives, Questions, Hypotheses, and S…
Chapter 7- Review of relevant literature